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Big Bear Choppers Rage 100 Smooth EFI


Founder(s) William S.

Arthur Davidson


William A. Davidson

Headquarters Wisconsin,


Key people E. Wandell, CEO

Products Motorcycles

Increase US$5.31 billion

Operating income Increase million (2011)[1]

Net income US$599.1 million (2011)[1]

assets Increase US$9.674 (2011)[1]

Total equity US$2.420 billion (2011)[1]

6,000 (December 2011)[2]

Inc[3] (NYSE: HOG, HDI[4]), often abbreviated H-D or is an American motorcycle manufacturer. in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, during the decade of the 20th century, it was one of two American motorcycle manufacturers to the Great Depression.[5] Harley-Davidson survived a period of poor control and competition from manufacturers.[6]

The company sells only heavyweight motorcycles over 750 cc, designed for cruising on Harley-Davidson motorcycles, or Harleys, are for the tradition of heavy customization gave rise to the chopper of motorcycle.[7] Except for the modern model family, current motorcycles reflect the styles of Harley designs. Harley-Davidson’s to establish itself in the light market have met little and have largely been since the 1978 sale of its Aermacchi subsidiary.

Harley-Davidson a large brand community keeps active through events, and a museum. Licensing of the brand and logo accounted for $40 (0.8%) of the company’s net revenue in


From left:William A. Walter Davidson, Sr. Arthur and William S. Harley


In William S. Harley, age 22, drew up for a small engine with a of 7.07 cubic inches cc) and four-inch (102 mm) flywheels. The was designed for use in a regular pedal-bicycle Over the next two years, and his childhood friend Arthur worked on their motor-bicycle the northside Milwaukee machine at the home of their friend, Melk.

It was finished in 1903 the help of Arthur’s brother, Davidson. Upon testing power-cycle, Harley and the Davidson found it unable to climb the around Milwaukee without assistance. They quickly off their first motor-bicycle as a learning experiment.[8]

Work began on a new and improved second-generation This first real motorcycle had a bigger engine of cubic inches (405 cc) 9.75 inches (25 cm) flywheels 28 lb (13 kg). The machine’s advanced pattern was similar to the 1903 Merkel motorcycle (designed by Merkel, later of Flying fame).

The bigger engine and design took it out of the motorized-bicycle and marked the path to future designs. The boys also help with their engine from outboard pioneer Ole Evinrude, who was then gas engines of his own design for automotive use on Lake Street.


The of the new loop-frame Harley-Davidson was assembled in a 10 ft × 15 ft m × 4.6 m) shed in the Davidson family Most of the major parts, were made elsewhere, some probably fabricated at the Milwaukee railshops where brother William A. Davidson was toolroom foreman. This machine was functional by September 8, when it competed in a Milwaukee race held at State Park.

It was ridden by Edward and placed fourth. This is the documented appearance of a Harley-Davidson in the historical record.[9]

In January small advertisements were in the Automobile and Cycle Trade that offered bare engines to the do-it-yourself trade. By complete motorcycles were in on a very limited basis. year, the first Harley-Davidson Carl H. Lang of Chicago, three bikes from the or so built in the Davidson backyard (Some years later the shed was taken to the Juneau factory where it would for many decades as a tribute to the Company’s humble origins. the first shed was accidentally by contractors in the early 1970s a clean-up of the factory yard.)

In Harley and the Davidson brothers their first factory on Street (later Juneau This location remains corporate headquarters today. The Juneau Avenue plant was a 40 ft × 60 ft (12 m × 18 m) wooden structure. The company about 50 motorcycles that

1907 model.

Harley-Davidson cc HT 1916

In 1907, William S. graduated from the University of with a degree in mechanical That year additional expansion came with a floor and later with and additions of Milwaukee pale (cream) brick. With the new production increased to 150 motorcycles in

The company was officially incorporated September. They also selling their motorcycles to departments around this a market that has been to them ever since.[11]

in 1905 and 1906 were all models with 26.84 inches (440 cc) engines. In 1907 a prototype model a 45-degree V-Twin engine was at the Chicago Automobile Show. shown and advertised, very few models were built 1907 and 1910. These V-Twins displaced 53.68 inches (880 cc) and produced 7 horsepower (5.2 kW).

gave about double the of the first singles. Top speed was 60 mph (100 km/h). Production from 450 motorcycles in 1908 to machines in 1909.[12]

Harley-Davidson in 1911

By 1911, some 150 of motorcycles had already been in the United States – although a handful would survive the

In 1911, an improved V-Twin was introduced. The new engine had mechanically intake valves, as opposed to the intake valves used on V-Twins that opened by vacuum. With a displacement of cubic inches (811 the 1911 V-Twin was smaller earlier twins, but gave performance.

After 1913 the of bikes produced by Harley-Davidson be V-Twin models.

By 1913, the brick factory had been and on the site a new 5-story structure had built. Begun in 1910, the with its many additions take up two blocks along Avenue and around the corner on Street. Despite the competition, was already pulling ahead of and would dominate motorcycle after 1914.

Production year swelled to 16,284

Ralph Hepburn on his Harley bike in this 1919

World War I

In 1917, the United entered World War I and the military motorcycles for the war effort.[13] Harleys had been used by the military in the Villa Expedition[14][15] but World War I was the time the motorcycle had been for combat service.[citation needed] provided about 15,000 to the military forces during War I.[16]


Harley-Davidson cc HT 1923

By 1920, Harley-Davidson was the motorcycle manufacturer in the world, 28,189 machines produced, and in 67 countries. [17]

In 1921, a Harley-Davidson, ridden by Walker, was the first motorcycle to win a race at an average speed of 100 mph (160 km/h).[18][19]

During the several improvements were put in such as a new 74 cubic inch cc) V-Twin, introduced in 1922, and the gas tank in 1925. A front was added in 1928 although only on the J/JD models.[20]

In the summer of 1929, Harley-Davidson its 45 cubic inches (737 cc) V-Twin to compete with the 101 Scout and the Excelsior Super This was the D model, produced 1929 to 1931.[22] Riders of motorcycles derisively referred to model as the three cylinder because the generator was upright and to the front cylinder.[23] The 2.745 in mm) bore and 3.8125 in (96.8 mm) would continue in most of the 750 engine; exceptions include the XA and the needed]

Great Depression

1,200 cc SV 1931

The Great began a few months after the of their 45 cubic inch Harley-Davidson’s sales fell 21,000 in 1929 to 3,703 in Despite this, Harley-Davidson a new lineup for 1934, which a Flathead with Art Deco

In order to survive the remainder of the the company manufactured industrial based on their motorcycle They also designed and a three-wheeled delivery vehicle the Servi-Car, which remained in until 1973.[21]

Harley-Davidson WL

In the mid Alfred Rich Child a production line in Japan the 74 cubic inches (1,210 cc) VL. The license-holder, Sankyo Seiyako severed its business relations Harley-Davidson in 1936 and continued the VL under the Rikuo name.[25]

dealer in Texas, ca. 1930-1945

An 80 inches (1,300 cc) flathead was added to the line in 1935, by time the single-cylinder motorcycles had discontinued.[26]

In 1936, the 61E and 61EL with the Knucklehead OHV engines was Valvetrain problems in early engines required a redesign through its first year of and retrofitting of the new valvetrain on earlier

By 1937, all Harley-Davidson’s flathead were equipped with oil recirculation systems similar to the one in the Knucklehead OHV engine. The revised 74 inches (1,210 cc) V and VL models renamed U and UL, the 80 cubic inches cc) VH and VLH to be renamed UH and ULH, and the 45 cubic (740 cc) R to be renamed W.[27]

In the 74 cubic inches (1,210 cc) was introduced as the F and the FL. The 80 cubic inches cc) flathead UH and ULH models were after 1941, while the 74 U UL models were produced up to

World War II

Harley copied the BMW R71 to its XA model.

One of only two American manufacturers to survive the Great Harley-Davidson again produced numbers of motorcycles for the US Army in War II and resumed civilian production producing a range of large motorcycles that were both on racetracks and for private

Harley-Davidson, on the eve of World War II, was already the Army with a military-specific of its 45 cubic inches (740 cc) WL called the WLA. (The A in case stood for Army.) the outbreak of war, the company, with most other enterprises, shifted to war work. 90,000 military motorcycles, WLAs and WLCs (the version) would be produced, to be provided to allies.[30] Harley-Davidson two Army-Navy ‘E’ Awards, one in 1943 and the in 1945, which were for Excellence in Production.

Harley the WLC for the Canadian military.

Shipments to the Union under the Lend-Lease numbered at least 30,000.[citation The WLAs produced during all years of war production generally 1942 serial numbers. of the WLA stopped at the end of World War II, but was resumed 1950 to 1952 for use in the Korean

The U.S. Army also Harley-Davidson to produce a new motorcycle many of the features of BMW’s and shaft-driven R71. Harley copied the BMW engine and drive and produced the shaft-driven 750 cc 1942 XA. This shared no dimensions, no and no design concepts (except valves) with any prior engine.

Due to the superior cooling of the engine with the cylinders the frame, Harley’s XA cylinder ran 100 °F (56 °C) cooler than its V-twins.[31] The XA entered full production: the by that time had been by the Jeep as the Army’s general vehicle, and the WLA—already in production—was for its limited police, escort, and roles. Only 1,000 made and the XA never went full production. It remains the shaft-driven Harley-Davidson ever

Small Harleys: Hummers and

Harley-Davidson Hummer

See also: Hummer and Harley-Davidson Topper

As of war reparations, Harley-Davidson acquired the of a small German motorcycle, the DKW RT which they adapted, and sold from 1948 to Various models were including the Hummer from to 1959, but they are all colloquially to as Hummers at present.[33] BSA in the United took the same design as the of their BSA Bantam.[34]

1971 Harley-Davidson Turismo Veloce

In Harley-Davidson consolidated the Model 165 and lines into the Super-10, the Topper scooter,[35] and bought percent of Aeronautica Macchi’s division.[35][36] Importation of Aermacchi’s 250 cc single began the following The bike bore Harley-Davidson and was marketed as the Harley-Davidson Sprint.[37][38] The of the Sprint was increased to 350 cc in 1969[36][39] and remain that size 1974, when the four-… was discontinued.[39]

After the Pacer and models were discontinued at the end of the Bobcat became the last of American-made two-… motorcycles. The was manufactured only in the 1966 year.[40]

Harley-Davidson replaced American-made lightweight two-… with the Aermacchi-built two-… M-65, M-65S, and Rapido. The had a semi-step-through frame and tank. The was a M-65 with a larger that eliminated the step-through The Rapido was a larger bike a 125 cc engine.[41] The Aermacchi-built Harley-Davidsons entirely two-… powered the 250 cc two-… SS-250 replaced the 350 cc Sprint in 1974.[42]

Harley-Davidson full control of Aermacchi’s production in 1974 and continued two-… motorcycles there 1978, when they the facility to Cagiva.[35]


to WWII, Harley-Davidson’s were in Japan under license to the Rikuo (Rikuo Internal Company)[43] starting in 1929 the name of Harley-Davidson and using the tooling, and later under the Rikuo. Production continued 1958.[44][45]

Tarnished reputation

of the Captain America bike the film Easy Rider.

In following their application to the US Commission for a 40% tax on imported motorcycles, was charged with restrictive

AMF H-D Electra Glide

In 1969, Machine and Foundry (AMF) the company, streamlined production, and the workforce. This tactic in a labor strike and a lower of bikes. The bikes were and inferior in performance, handling, and to Japanese motorcycles. Sales and declined, and the company almost bankrupt.[6] The Harley-Davidson name was as Hardly Ableson, Hardly and Hogly Ferguson,[47][48] and the nickname Hog pejorative.[citation needed]

In 1977 following the successful manufacture of the Edition to commemorate America’s in 1976.[49] — Harley-Davidson what has become one of its most models, the Harley-Davidson Confederate The bike was essentially a stock with Confederate-specific paint and

Restructuring and revival

In 1981, AMF the company to a group of thirteen led by Vaughn Beals and Willie G. for $80 million.[51] Inventory was strictly using the just-in-time system.

In the eighties, Harley-Davidson claimed Japanese manufacturers were motorcycles into the US in such as to harm or threaten to harm producers. After an investigation by the US Trade Commission, President imposed in 1983 a 45% tariff on bikes and bikes over 700 cc capacity. Harley-Davidson subsequently offers of assistance from motorcycle makers.[52] However, the did offer to drop the request for the in exchange for loan guarantees the Japanese.[53]

Rather than to match the Japanese, the new management exploited the retro appeal of the building motorcycles that adopted the look and feel of earlier machines and the subsequent of owners of that era. components such as brakes, shocks, carburetors, electrics and were outsourced from manufacturers and quality increased, improvements were made, and slowly returned.

Harley-Davidson the Sub Shock canitlever-swingarm rear design from Missouri Bill Davis and developed it its Softail series of motorcycles, in 1984 with the FXST

In response to possible motorcycle loss due to the aging of baby-boomers, bought luxury motorhome Holiday Rambler in 1986.[55] In the company sold Holiday to the Monaco Coach Corporation[56]

F-150 Super Crew


The Sturgis model, a dual belt-drive, was introduced. By with the introduction of the Fat Boy, once again became the leader in the heavyweight (over 750 cc) needed] At the time of the Fat Boy model a story rapidly spread its silver paint job and other were inspired by the World War II B-29 …; and that the Fat Boy was a combination of the names of the atomic (Fat Man and Little Boy) were dropped on Nagasaki and respectively.[57] However, the Urban Reference Pages lists story as an urban legend.[58][59]

and 1994 saw the replacement of FXR models the Dyna (FXD), which the sole rubber mount FX Big frame in 1995. The FXR was revived from 1999 to 2000 for limited editions (FXR2, FXR4).[60]

In 2000, Ford Company added a Harley-Davidson to the Ford F-Series F-150 complete with the Harley-Davidson This truck was a Super Cab for year 2000. In 2001, changed the truck to a Super

In 2002, Ford added a engine (5.4 L) which until 2003. The 2003 bore badges celebrating the anniversaries of both companies. In the Ford/Harley truck was changed to a which continues through

Ford resumed production of the Edition F-150 for their model-year, as well. The Ford-F150 Edition continues in production for the model year.[61]

Building on $75 million 130,000 square-foot m2) Harley-Davidson Museum in the Menomonee on June 1, 2006. It opened in and houses the company’s vast of historic motorcycles and corporate along with a restaurant, and meeting space.[62]

Buell Company

Main article: Motorcycle Company

Buell XB9SX

Harley-Davidson’s association sportbike manufacturer Buell Company began in 1987 they supplied Buell fifty surplus XR1000 Buell continued to buy engines Harley-Davidson until 1993, Harley-Davidson bought forty-nine of the Buell Motorcycle Company.[63] increased its share in Buell to percent in 1998, and to complete in 2003.[64]

In an attempt to attract to motorcycling in general and to Harley-Davidson in Buell developed a low-cost, motorcycle. The resulting single-cylinder Blast was introduced in 2000,[65] and was through 2009, which, to Buell, was to be the final year of

On October 15, 2009, Harley-Davidson issued an official statement it would be discontinuing the Buell and ceasing production immediately.[67] The reason was to focus on the Harley-Davidson The company refused to consider Buell.[68] Founder Erik subsequently established Erik Racing and continued to manufacture and the company’s 1125RR racing

Claims of stock price

Harley-Davidson Inc (NYSE:HOG) stock (source: ZenoBank.com)

During its of peak demand, during the 1990s and early first of the 21st century, Harley-Davidson on a program of expanding the number of throughout the country. At the same its current dealers typically had lists that extended up to a for some of the most popular Harley-Davidson, like the auto records a sale not when a buys their product, but when it is delivered to a dealer.

it is possible for the manufacturer to inflate numbers by requiring dealers to more inventory than in a practice called channel When demand softened the unique 2003 model this news led to a dramatic in the stock price. In April alone, the price of HOG shares from over $60 to under

Immediately prior to this retiring CEO Jeffrey Bleustein $42 million on the exercise of employee options.[70] Harley-Davidson was named as a in numerous class action filed by investors who claimed were intentionally defrauded by management and directors.[71] By January the price of Harley-Davidson shares $70.

Problems with Touring models

Starting 2000, several police started reporting problems high speed instability on the Touring motorcycles.[72] A Raleigh, Carolina police officer, Paul, was … when his police touring motorcycle after reportedly experiencing a speed wobble.[73] The California Patrol conducted testing of the Touring motorcycles in 2006. The CHP riders reported experiencing or weave instability while the motorcycles on the test track.[74]


On February 2, 2007, the expiration of their union about 2,700 employees at Inc.’s largest manufacturing in York, PA went on strike failing to agree on wages and benefits.[75][76] During the pendency of the the company refused to pay for any portion of the employees’ health care.[77]

The day the strike, after the union against the proposed contract and to the strike, the company shut all production at the plant. The York employs more than workers, both union and

Harley-Davidson announced on February 16, that it had reached a labor with union workers at its manufacturing plant, a breakthrough in the strike.[79] The strike disrupted national production and had ripple as far away as Wisconsin, where 440 were laid off, and Harley suppliers also off workers because of the strike.[80]

MV Group

On July 11, 2008 announced they had signed a agreement to acquire the MV Agusta for $109M USD (€70M). MV Agusta contains two lines of motorcycles: the MV Agusta brand and the lightweight brand.[81][82] The acquisition was completed on 8.[83]

On October 15, 2009, announced that it would its interest in MV Agusta.[67] Harley-Davidson sold Italian motorcycle MV Agusta to Claudio Castiglioni, the transaction on the first week of 2010. Castiglioni is the company’s owner and had been MV Agusta’s since Harley-Davidson bought it in

Operations in India

Main Harley-Davidson India

In August Harley-Davidson announced plans to the market in India, and started motorcycles there in 2010. The established a subsidiary, Harley-Davidson in Gurgaon, near Delhi, in and created an Indian dealer

Financial crisis

According to the value of the Harley-Davidson brand by 43% to $4.34 billion in 2009. The in value is believed to be connected to the 66% in the company profits in two quarters of the year.[87] On April 29, 2010, stated that they cut $54 million in manufacturing costs its production facilities in Wisconsin, and they would explore U.S. sites to accomplish The announcement came in the wake of a company-wide restructuring, which in early 2009 and involved the of two factories, one distribution center, and the elimination of nearly 25% of its total (around 3,500 employees). The announced on September 14, 2010 it would remain in Wisconsin.[88]


1,450 cc V-twin

article: Harley-Davidson engine

The classic Harley-Davidson engines are engines, each with a 45° between the cylinders. The crankshaft has a pin, and both pistons are to this pin through their rods.[7]

This 45° angle is under several United patents and is an engineering tradeoff allows a large, high-torque in a relatively small space. It the cylinders to fire at uneven and produces the choppy potato-potato so strongly linked to the Harley-Davidson

To simplify the engine and reduce the V-twin ignition was designed to with a single set of points and no This is known as a dual ignition system, causing spark plugs to fire of which cylinder was on its compression with the other spark firing on its cylinder’s exhaust effectively wasting a spark. The note is basically a throaty sound with some The 45° design of the engine thus a plug firing sequencing as The first cylinder fires, the (rear) cylinder fires later, then there is a gap until the first cylinder again, giving the engine its sound.[89]

Harley-Davidson has used ignition systems throughout its – be it the early points and condenser (Big Twin up to 1978 and 1970 to 1978), magneto system used on 1958 to Sportsters, early electronic centrifugal mechanical advance (all models 1978 and a to 1979), or the late electronic transistorized ignition control more familiarly known as the box or the brain, (all models to present).

Starting in 1995, the introduced Electronic Fuel (EFI) as an option for the 30th edition Electra Glide.[90] EFI standard on all Harley-Davidson motorcycles, Sportsters, upon the introduction of the product line.[91]

In 1991, began to participate in the Sound Working Group, founded by Labs, Bruel and Kjaer, Yamaha, Sennheiser, SMS and Cortex. was the nation’s first group to research on psychological acoustics. that year, Harley-Davidson in a series of sound quality at Orfield Labs, based on taken at the Talladega Superspeedway, the objective to lower the sound for EU standards while analytically the Harley Sound.[citation needed] research resulted in the bikes were introduced in compliance EU standards for 1998.

On February 1, the company filed a sound application for the distinctive sound of the motorcycle engine: The mark of the exhaust sound of applicant’s produced by V-twin, common motorcycle engines when the are in use. Nine of Harley-Davidson’s filed comments opposing the arguing that cruiser-style of various brands use a single-crankpin engine which produce a sound.[92] These objections followed by litigation. In June the company dropped efforts to register its trademark.[93][94]

Big V-twins

Glide Ultra Classic

also known as JD, pocket and IOE (intake over exhaust), (1,000 cc), and 1922–1929 cc)

Flathead, 1930–1948 (1,200 cc) and (1,300 cc).

Knucklehead, 61 cubic inch (1,000 and 1941–1947 74 cubic inch cc)

Panhead, 1948–1965 61 cubic (1,000 cc), and 1948–1965, 74 inch (1,200 cc)

Shovelhead, 74 cubic inch (1,200 cc) and 80 inch (1,338 cc) since 1978

Evolution (a.k.a. Evo and 1984–1998, 80 cubic inch cc)

Twin Cam (a.k.a. Fathead) in the following versions:

Twin Cam 88, 88 cubic inch (1,450 cc)

Cam 88B, counterbalanced version of the Cam 88, 2000–2006, 88 cubic inch cc)

Twin Cam 95, since 2000, 95 inch (1,550 cc) (engines for C.V.O. models)

Twin Cam 96, 2007. As of 2012, only the Bob and Super Glide Custom still use the 96. 96 cubic inch cc)

Twin Cam 103, 2003–2006, 103 cubic inch (1,690 cc) for C.V.O. models), Standard on Touring models: Ultra Road King Classic and Glide Ultra and optional on the Glide Custom and Street Standard on most 2012 excluding Sportsters and 2 Dynas Bob and Super Glide Custom)

Cam 110, since 2007, 110 inch (1,800 cc) (engines for models)

Small V-twins


D Model, 1929–1931, 750 cc

R 1932–1936, 750 cc

W Model, 1937–1952, 750 cc, (2 wheel, frame only)

G Model, 1932–1973, 750 cc

K Model, 750 cc

KH Model, 1954–1956, 900 cc

Ironhead, 900 cc; 1971–1985, 1,000 cc

Evolution, 1986, 883 cc, 1,100 cc and 1,200 cc


V-Rod on the show floor

The Revolution engine is on the VR-1000 Superbike race developed by Harley-Davidson’s Powertrain team and Porsche Engineering in Germany. It is a liquid cooled, overhead cam, internally 60 degree V-twin engine a displacement of 69 cubic inch cc), producing 115 hp (86 kW) at 8,250 rpm at the with a redline of 9,000 It was introduced for the new V-Rod line in for the 2002 model year, with the single VRSCA Racing Street Custom)

A 1,250 cc Screamin’ Eagle of the Revolution engine was made for 2005 and 2006, and was present in a single production model 2005 to 2007. In 2008, the cc Revolution Engine became for the entire VRSC line. claims 123 hp (92 kW) at the crank for the 2008 model.

The VRXSE Destroyer is with a stroker (75 mm crank) Eagle 79 cubic inch cc) Revolution Engine, producing 165 hp (123 kW).


1928 Harley-Davidson single-cylinder

IOE singles

The first Harley-Davidson were powered by single-cylinder IOE with the inlet valve by engine vacuum.[99] Singles of type continued to be made 1913, when a pushrod and system was used to operate the inlet valve on the single, a system having been on their V-twins since Single-cylinder motorcycle engines discontinued in 1918.[101]

Flathead and OHV

Single-cylinder engines were in 1925 as 1926 models.[102] singles were available as flathead engines or as overhead engines[103] until 1930, which they were available as flatheads.[102] The flathead motorcycles were designated A for engines with magneto only and Model B for engines battery and coil systems, overhead valve versions designated Model AA and Model BA and a magneto-only racing version was Model S.[103] This of single-cylinder motorcycles ended in 1934.[102]

Two-… singles

See Harley-Davidson Hummer


Modern Harley-branded motorcycles into one of five model Touring, Softail, Dyna, and Vrod. These model are distinguished by the frame, engine, and other characteristics.


Police Electra Glide.

See Harley-Davidson FL

The touring family, known as dressers, includes King, Road Glide, and Glide models offered in trim. The Road Kings a retro cruiser appearance and are with a large clear Road Kings are reminiscent of models from the 1940s and

Electra Glides can be identified by full front fairings. Electra Glides sport a fairing referred to as the Batwing due to its shape. The Road Glide and Glide Ultra Classic a frame-mounted fairing, referred to as the

The Sharknose includes a unique, front headlight.

Touring are distinguishable by their large rear coil-over air suspension and are the models to offer full with radios and CBs. All models use the same frame, introduced with a Shovelhead in 1980, and carried forward only modest upgrades 2009, when it was extensively The frame is distinguished by the location of the head in front of the forks and was the H-D frame to rubber mount the to isolate the rider from the of the big V-twin.

The frame was modified for the model year when the oil went under the transmission and the was moved inboard from the right saddlebag to under the In 1997, the frame was again to allow for a larger battery the seat and to lower seat In 2007, Harley-Davidson introduced the 96 inches (1,570 cubic Twin Cam 96 engine, as well the transmission to give the rider speeds on the highway.

In 2006, introduced the FLHX Street a bike designed by Willie G. to be his personal ride, to its touring

In 2008, Harley added braking systems and cruise as a factory installed option on all models (standard on CVO and Anniversary Also new for 2008 is the 6-US-gallon (23 l; 5.0 imp fuel tank for all touring 2008 also brought to all touring models.

Big Bear Choppers Rage 100 Smooth EFI

For the 2009 year, Harley-Davidson has redesigned the touring range with changes, including a new frame, new a completely revised engine-mounting 17-inch (430 mm) front for all but the FLHRC Road King and a 2–1–2 exhaust. The changes in greater load carrying better handling, a smoother longer range and less heat transmitted to the rider and Also released for the 2009 year is the FLHTCUTG Tri-Glide Classic, the first three-wheeled since the Servi-Car was discontinued in The model features a unique and a 103-cubic-inch (1,690 cc) engine to the trike.[109]


Touring use Big-Twin engines and large-diameter forks. All Touring designations with the letters FL, e.g. (Road King) and FLTR Glide).


2002 Heritage Classic.

Main Softail

These big-twin capitalize on Harley’s strong on tradition. With the rear-wheel hidden under the transmission, are visually similar to the hardtail popular in the 1960s and 1970s, as as from their own earlier In keeping with that Harley offers Softail with Springer front and Heritage styling that design cues from their history.


models utilize the big-twin (F) and the Softail chassis (ST).

models that use small-diameter forks similar to those on the Sportster (X) have designations begin with FXST, FXSTB (Night Train), (Deuce), and FXSTS (Springer).

models that use large-diameter forks similar to those on the touring bikes (L) have beginning with FLST, FLSTF (Fat Boy), (Heritage Softail Classic), (Softail Deluxe) and FLS (Softail

Softail models that use forks with a 21-inch mm) wheel have designations begin with FXSTS, FXSTS (Springer Softail) and (Bad Boy).

Softail that use Springer forks a 16-inch (410 mm) wheel designations that begin FLSTS, e.g. FLSTSC Classic) and FLSTSB (Cross


Main article: Super Glide

2005 Super Glide Custom.

motorcycles were developed in the and early 1990s and debuted in the model year with the Sturgis offered in limited quantities. In 1992 the line with the limited edition Daytona and a production model FXD Glide. The new DYNA frame big-twin engines and traditional

They can be distinguished from the by the traditional coil-over suspension connects the swingarm to the frame, and the Sportster by their larger On these models, the transmission houses the engine’s oil reservoir.

to 2008, Dyna models featured a narrow, XL-style fork and front wheel, the manufacturer included the letter X in the designation to indicate. This traditionally included the Super (FXD), Super Glide (FXDC), Street Bob (FXDB), and Low (FXDL). One exception was the Wide (FXDWG), which maintained the of the XL forks and a narrow front but positioned the forks on wider that give a beefier

In 2008, the Dyna Fat Bob (FXDF) was to the Dyna lineup, featuring styling like a new 2–1–2 twin headlamps, a 180 mm rear and, for the first time in the lineup, a 130 mm front tire. For the model year, the Dyna (FLD) became the first to break the tradition of having an FX designation: with detachable hard saddlebags, touring larger fork tubes, nacelle and a wide front with full fender.

The new end resembled the big-twin FL models 1968-1971. It also is listed by as part of their touring

The Dyna family used the (1,440 cc) twin cam from to 2006. In 2007, the displacement was to 96 cubic inches (1,570 cc) as the increased the … to 4.375 (111.1 mm). For the 2012 year, the manufacturer began to Dyna models with the (1,690 cc) upgrade.

All Dyna use a rubber-mounted engine to isolate vibration.


Dyna utilize the big-twin engine small-diameter telescopic forks to those used on the Sportster (X) 2012 when one model the large diameter forks in appearance to those used on the (L) models, and the Dyna chassis Therefore, except for the FLD from to the present, all Dyna models designations that begin FXD, e.g. FXDWG Wide Glide) and FXDL Low Rider).


Main Harley-Davidson Sportster

2002 883 Custom

2003 Harley-Davidson Custom Anniversary Edition

in 1957, the Sportster family conceived as racing motorcycles, and popular on dirt and flat-track courses through the 1960s and Smaller and lighter than the Harley models, contemporary make use of 883 cc or 1,200 cc Evolution and, though often remain similar in appearance to racing ancestors.[110]

Up until the model year, the engine on the was rigidly mounted to the frame. The Sportster received a new frame a rubber-mounted engine. This the bike heavier and reduced the lean angle, while it the amount of vibration transmitted to the and the rider, providing a smoother for rider and passenger.[111]

In the 2007 year, Harley-Davidson celebrated the anniversary of the Sportster and produced a edition called the XL50, of only 2000 were for sale worldwide. Each was individually numbered and came in one of two Mirage Pearl Orange or Black. Also in 2007, fuel injection was introduced to the family, and the Nightster model was in mid-year.

In 2009, Harley-Davidson the Iron 883 to the Sportster line, as of the Dark Custom series.

In the model year, Harley-Davidson the XR1200 Sportster in Europe, and the Middle East. The XR1200 had an engine tuned to produce 91 bhp (68 four-piston dual front brakes, and an aluminum swing

Motorcyclist featured the XR1200 on the of its July 2008 issue and was positive about it in their Ride story, in which was repeatedly asked to sell it in the States.[112] One possible reason for the availability in the United States was the that Harley-Davidson had to obtain the naming rights from Performance, a Harley customizing in Ventura, Calif.[113] The XR1200 was in the United States in 2009 in a color scheme including Orange highlighting its dirt-tracker The first 750 XR1200 models in were pre-ordered and came a number 1 tag for the front of the bike, by Kenny Coolbeth and Scott and a thank you/welcome letter the company, signed by Bill needed] The XR1200 was discontinued in year 2013.


the exception of the street-going XR1000 of the and the XR1200 most Sportsters for street use have the prefix XL in model designation. For the Sportster engines used since the mid there have been two sizes. Motorcycles with the engine are designated XL883, those with the larger were initially designated

When the size of the larger was increased from 1,100 cc to cc, the designation was changed accordingly XL1100 to XL1200. Subsequent in the designation refer to model within the Sportster range, the XL883C refers to an 883 cc Sportster while the XL1200S designates the 1200 Sportster Sport.

Main article: Harley-Davidson

V-Rod in a gravel driveway.

in 2001, the VRSC family little resemblance to Harley’s traditional lineup. Competing Japanese and American muscle in the upcoming power cruiser the V-Rod makes use of an engine jointly with Porsche for the first time in Harley incorporates overhead cams and cooling.

The V-Rod is visually easily identified by the 60-degree engine, the radiator and the hydroformed members that support the air cleaner cover. The VRSC was also used for factory motorcycles.

In 2008, Harley the anti-lock braking system as a installed option on all VRSC Harley also increased the of the stock engine from to 1,250 cc (69 to 76 cu in), which had previously been available Screamin’ Eagle, and added a clutch as standard equipment.

models include:

VRSCA: (2002–2006), VRSCAW: V-Rod VRSCB: V-Rod (2004–2005), Night Rod (2006–2008), VRSCDX: Rod Special (2007–2010), VRSCSE: Eagle CVO V-Rod (2005), Screamin’ Eagle CVO V-Rod VRSCR: Street Rod (2006–2007), Screamin’ Eagle Tribute (2007), VRSCF: V-Rod (2009–2010).


VRSC utilize the Revolution engine and the street versions are designated Custom (SC). After the prefix common to all street bikes, the next letter the model, either A (base discontinued), AW (base V-Rod + W for with a 240 mm rear tire), B D (Night Rod: discontinued), R Rod: discontinued), SE and SEII(CVO Edition), or X (Special edition).

differentiation within models are with an additional letter, VRSCDX denotes the Night Rod


The VRXSE V-Rod is Harley-Davidson’s production drag motorcycle, constructed to run the quarter in under ten seconds. It is based on the revolution engine that the VRSC line, but the VRXSE the Screamin’ Eagle 1,300 cc incarnation, featuring a 75 mm crankshaft, 105 mm and 58 mm throttle bodies.

The V-Rod is not a street legal motorcycle. As it uses X instead of SC to denote a bike. SE denotes a CVO Special

Custom Vehicle Operations


This section not cite any references or sources. help improve this by adding citations to reliable Unsourced material may be challenged and (July 2011)

Main article: Harley-Davidson CVO

Vehicle Operations (CVO) is a within Harley-Davidson that limited-edition customizations of Harley’s models. Every year 1999, the team has selected two to of the company’s base models and higher-displacement engines, performance special-edition paint jobs, chromed or accented components, system upgrades, and electronic to create high-dollar, premium-quality for the factory custom market.

The most commonly upgraded in a fashion are the Ultra Classic Glide, which has been for CVO treatment every year 2006 to the present, and the Road which was selected in 2002, 2007, and 2008. The Dyna, and VRSC families have been selected for CVO customization.


The Environmental Protection conducted emissions-certification and representative test in Ann Arbor, Michigan, in Subsequently, Harley-Davidson produced an warranty.

The warranty ensures owner that the vehicle is and built free of any defects in and workmanship that would the vehicle to not meet EPA standards.[114] In the EPA and the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental (PADEP) confirmed Harley-Davidson to be the corporation to voluntarily enroll in the One Program. This program is for the clean-up of the affected soil and at the former York Naval Plant. The program is backed by the and local government along participating organizations and corporations.[115]

Gotthold, Director of Operations for the congratulated the motor company:

has taken their environmental very seriously and has already substantial progress in the investigation and of past contamination. Proof of efforts can be found in the recent EPA that designates the Harley as ‘under control’ for cleanup This determination means there are no serious contamination at the facility. Under the new One Cleanup Harley, EPA, and PADEP expedite the completion of the property and reach a final solution will permanently protect health and the environment.[115]

Harley-Davidson purchased most of Castalloy, a Australian producer of cast wheels and hubs. The South government has set forth protection to the (Harley-Davidson) against environmental

Brand culture

Harley-Davidson theme restaurant located on the Las Strip

According to a recent study, in 1987 half of all riders were under age Now, only 15% of Harley are under 35,[117] and as of 2005, the age had risen to 46.7.[118][119][120][121]

The income of the Harley-Davidson rider has risen, as In 1987, the median household of a Harley-Davidson rider was $38,000. By the median household income for riders had more than to $83,000.[117][clarification needed]

Harley-Davidson a loyal brand community,[122] licensing of the Harley-Davidson logo for almost 5% of the company’s net revenue million in 2004).[123] Harley-Davidson many American police with their motorcycle

Harley-Davidson motorcycles has long associated with the sub-cultures of the motorcycle clubs, and Outlaw clubs, or one percenters

Origin of Hog

Beginning in 1920, a team of boys, including Ray Weishaar, who known as the hog boys, consistently won The group had a live hog as their Following a win, they put the hog on their Harley and take a lap.[17] In 1983, the Motor formed a club for owners of its taking advantage of the long-standing by turning hog into the acronym for Harley Owners Group. attempted to trademark hog, but a case against an independent specialist, The Hog Farm of West NY,[125] in 1999 when the panel ruled that hog had a generic term for large and was therefore unprotectable as a trademark.[126]

On 15, 2006, Harley-Davidson Inc. had its ticker symbol changed HDI to HOG.[127]

Harley Owners

Main article: Harley Group

Harley-Davidson established the Owners Group (HOG) in to build on the loyalty of Harley-Davidson as a means to promote a lifestyle its products. The HOG also opened new streams for the company, with the of tie-in merchandise offered to members, numbering over one Other motorcycle brands,[128] and and consumer brands outside have also tried to factory-sponsored community marketing of their own.[129] HOG members spend 30% more than Harley owners, on such as clothing and Harley-Davidson-sponsored events.[130]

In HOG went international, with the official European HOG Rally in England.[131] Today, more one million members and more 1400 chapters worldwide HOG the largest factory-sponsored motorcycle in the world.[132]

HOG benefits include group rides, exclusive and product discounts, insurance and the Hog Tales newsletter. A one year membership is included with the of a new, unregistered Harley-Davidson.[133]

In HOG celebrated its 25th anniversary in with the Harley 105th in Wisconsin.

Factory tours and

Harley-Davidson Museum in Milwaukee

offers factory tours at of its manufacturing sites, and the Harley-Davidson which opened in 2008, Harley-Davidson’s history, culture, and including the motor company’s archives.[134][135]

York, Pennsylvania – Operations: Manufacturing site for class, Softail, and custom

Tomahawk, Wisconsin – Tomahawk Facility that makes saddlebags, windshields, and more.

City, Missouri – Vehicle and Operations: Manufacturing site of VRSC, and other vehicles.

Falls, Wisconsin – Pilgrim Powertrain Operations plant, two of tours.

Milwaukee, Wisconsin – Museum: Archive; exhibits of products, culture and history; café; and museum store.

Due to the of operations, the Capitol Drive Center in Wauwatosa, Wisconsin was in 2009.

Anniversary celebrations

from top left: William S. William A. Davidson, Walter Sr. Arthur Davidson

Beginning Harley-Davidson’s 90th anniversary in Harley-Davidson has had celebratory rides to called the Ride Home.[136] new tradition has continued every 5 and is referred to unofficially as Harleyfest, in with Milwaukee’s other (Summerfest, German fest, Italiana, etc.). This brings Harley riders all around the world.[137][138] The 105th celebration was held on August 2008,[139] and included events in Waukesha, Racine, and Kenosha in Southeast Wisconsin.

Labor of Fame

William S. Harley, Davidson, William A. Davidson and Davidson, Sr. were inducted the Labor Hall of Fame for accomplishments for the H-D company and its workforce.[140]

companies based in Milwaukee


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