BMW Fairings Accessories

27 Mar 2015 | Author: | Comments Off on BMW Fairings Accessories
BMW R67/3

BMW Fairings Accessories

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Sport bike A sport bike, aka sportbike and sportsbike, is a motorcycle optimized for speed, acceleration, braking, and cornering on paved roads, typically at the expense of comfort and fuel economy by comparison with more standard motorcycles. Soichiro Honda wrote in the owner’s manual of the 1959 Honda CB92 Benly Super Sport that, Primarily, essentials of the motorcycle consists in the speed and the thrill, while Cycle World’s Kevin Cameron says more prosaically that, A sportbike is a motorcycle whose enjoyment consists mainly from its ability to perform on all types of paved highway – its cornering ability, its handling, its thrilling acceleration and braking power, even (dare I say it?) its speed.

Motorcycles are versatile and may be put to many uses as the rider sees fit. In the past there were few if any specialized types of motorcycles, but the number of types and sub-types has proliferated, particularly in the period since the 1950s. The introduction of the Honda CB750 in 1969 marked a dramatic increase in the power and speed of practical and affordable sport bikes available to the general public.

The ground breaking inline four of the Honda CB750. This was followed in the 1970s by improvements in suspension and braking commensurate with the power of the large inline fours that had begun to dominate the sport bike world. In the 1980s sport bikes again took a leap ahead, becoming almost indistinguishable from racing motorcycles.

Since the 1990s sport bikes have become more diverse, adding new variations like the naked bike and streetfighter to the more familiar road racing style of sport bike. Design elements With the emphasis of a sport bike being on speed, acceleration, braking, and maneuverability, there are certain design elements that most motorcycles of this type will share. Rider ergonomics favor function.

This generally means higher foot pegs that move the legs closer to the body and more of a reach to a lower set of hand controls, such as clip on handlebars, which positions the body and weight forward and over the tank. Sport bikes have comparatively high-performance engines resting inside a lightweight frame. High tech and expensive materials are often used on sport bikes to reduce weight.

Braking systems combine higher performance brake pads and disc brakes with multi-piston calipers that clamp onto oversized vented rotors. Suspension systems are advanced in terms of adjustments and materials for increased stability and durability. Front and rear tires are larger and wider than tires found on other types of motorcycles to allow higher cornering speeds and greater lean angles.

Fairings may or may not be used on a sport bike; when used, fairings are shaped to reduce aerodynamic drag as much as possible and provide wind protection for the rider. The combination of rider position, location of the engine and other heavy components, and the motorcycle’s geometry help maintain structural integrity and chassis rigidity, and determine how it will behave under acceleration, braking, and cornering.

Correct front-to-rear weight distribution is of particular importance to the handling of sport bikes, and the changing position of the rider’s body dynamically changes the handling of the motorcycle. Because of the complexity of modeling all the possible movements of different sized riders, to approach perfect tuning of a motorcycle’s weight distribution and suspension is often only possible by having a bike customized or at least adjusted to fit a specific rider.

Generally, road racing style sport bikes have shorter wheelbases than those intended for more comfortable touring, and the current trend in sport bike design is towards shorter wheelbases, giving quicker turning at the expense of a greater tendency for unintentional wheelies and stoppies under hard acceleration and braking, respectively. Classes There is no universal authority defining the terminology of sport bikes or any other motorcycle classes.

Legal definitions are limited by local jurisdiction, and race sanctioning bodies like the American Motorcyclist Association (AMA) and the F-d-ration Internationale de Motocyclisme (FIM) set rules that only apply to those who choose to participate in their competitions. Nonetheless, by present day standards in Europe, North America and the rest of the developed world, sport bikes are usually divided into three, four, or five rough categories, reflecting vaguely similar engine displacement, horsepower, price and intended use, with a good measure of subjective opinion and fudging for the sake of simplicity.

Marketing messages about a model from the manufacturer can diverge from the consensus of the motorcycling media and the public. Sometimes the classes used in motorcycle racing are approximated in production models, often but not always in connection with homologation. The sport bike classes in common usage are: Lightweight, also called entry level, small or beginner bikes.

Some two strokes in this class have dramatically higher performance than the four strokes, being likened to miniature superbikes. Sport bikes with engine displacements of up to about 500 cc (31 cu in) are usually in this class. Middleweight, mid-sized, mid-level, or supersport.

Some of the models in this range qualify for racing in the classes AMA Supersport Championship, British Supersport Championship and the Supersport World Championship, but many middleweights do not have a significant presence in racing. Displacements of 600–750 cc (37–46 cu in) are typical. Superbike, liter-class, or literbike, i.e. 1,000 cc (61 cu in). As with supersport, many of the models in this class compete in superbike racing.

Open class, hypersport or hyperbike are terms sometimes used in lieu of superbike as a catch-all for everything larger than middleweight. Alternatively, these terms mark a class above the superbikes for the largest displacement sport bikes with the highest top speeds, with weights somewhat greater than the superbike class. The terms supersport and superbike are sometimes applied indiscriminately to all high performance motorcycles.

Categorization by engine displacement alone is a crude measure, particularly when comparing engines with different numbers of cylinders like inline or V fours with parallel and V twins, not to mention the greater power for a given displacement of two-stroke engines over four strokes. In the less developed world, smaller engine sizes are the norm, and relative terms like small, mid sized and large displacement can have different meanings.

For example, in India in 2002 there were about 37 million two-wheelers, but as of 2008, there were only about 3,000 motorcycles, or fewer than one in 12,000, of displacement 1,000 cc (61 cu in) or more. Similarly, the perception of relative sizes has shifted over time in developed countries, from smaller to larger displacements.

When the original superbike, the Honda CB750, appeared in 1969, it was called a big four, while today an inline four of 736.5 cc (44.94 cu in) would be classed in the middle range. Besides having product lines that span from entry level through high end sport bikes, many manufacturers add depth to that line by having pairs, or several pairs, of similar sport bikes aimed at riders of different levels. These are designed to appeal to riders seeking more or less extreme performance features.

The more expensive model will be in the vein of a race replica, offering the latest technology updated with frequent design revisions, while the lower cost model typically relies on older technology, can have a more relaxed riding position, and is generally more practical for non-road racing tasks such as urban commuting and carrying passengers or baggage, and offering lower fuel, insurance and maintenance costs. Examples of these paired models are Buell’s Firebolt and Lightning, Ducati’s 916/748 through 1198/848 paired series, Honda’s CBR600RR and F4i middleweights and RC51 and CBR1000RR liter-class, several different concurrent models in Kawasaki’s Ninja line, and Yamaha’s R6 and 600R.

Variations Sport touring motorcycles share many features of sport bikes, but they are generally considered a class all their own. These are mid- to large-sized motorcycles that offer more carrying capacity, more relaxed ergonomics, and more versatility than specialized sport bikes, while being lighter and more agile than touring motorcycles.

Some sport bikes are marketed as race replicas, implying that the model sold to the public is identical to the one used in racing, or at least is closer to the racing version than non-replica models. Suffixes R or RR applied to model codes can be interpreted as standing for replica or race replica.

The term race replica can also be used to distinguish the period of sport bike production from Japan and Europe since the mid 1980s, representing an evolution from the superbike period that began in 1969. The sport bike, or race replica, era began with the 1984 Honda VF750F and the 1985 Suzuki GSX-R750 and featured full fairings, but sport bikes with small or no fairings have proliferated since the mid 1990s.

These are called naked bikes or streetfighters, and they retain many of the performance features of other sport bikes, but, besides abbreviated bodywork, they give the rider a more upright posture, by using, for example, higher handlebars instead of clip ons. The streetfighter name, associated with motorcycle stunt riding and perhaps hooliganism on public roads, can imply higher performance than the sometimes more tame naked bike, which in some cases is a synonym for a standard motorcycle.

Others define naked bikes as equal in power and performance to sport bikes, merely absent the bodywork. The same period that saw the naked and streetfighter variants of the sport bike theme also had a resurgence of the versatile standard in response to demand for a return of the Universal Japanese motorcycle.

Supermoto-style street bikes, constructed with a completely different set of priorities than a road racing style sport bike, have also entered the mainstream, offering another option for riders seeking a spirited riding experience. The nickname muscle bike has been applied to sport bikes that give engine output a disproportionate priority over braking, handling or aerodynamics, harking back to the Japanese superbikes of the 1970s.

A similar sensibility drives the so-called power cruiser motorcycles, based on cruiser class machines but with horsepower numbers in league with superbikes. Motorcycle fairing A motorcycle fairing is a shell placed over the frame of some motorcycles, especially racing motorcycles and sport bikes, with the primary purpose to reduce air drag.

The secondary functions are the protection of the rider from airborne hazards and wind-induced hypothermia and of the engine components in the case of an accident. There may be a front fairing, as well as a rear fairing component. A motorcycle windshield may be an integral part of the fairing.

The major benefit of a fairing on sport touring and touring motorcycles is a reduction in fuel consumption. The reduction in aerodynamic drag allows for taller gearing, which in turn increases engine life. History The importance of streamlining was known very early in the 20th century.

Some streamlining was seen on racing motorcycles as early as the 1920s. The effects of aerodynamic drag on motorcycles are very significant. The term fairing came into use in aircraft aerodynamics with regard to smoothing airflow over a juncture of components where airflow was disrupted. Early streamlining was often unsuccessful resulting in instability. Handlebar fairings, such as those on Harley-Davidson Tourers, sometimes upset the balance of a motorcycle, inducing wobble.

The first factory installed full fairing was that installed on the BMW R100RS introduced in 1976. This marked the beginning of widespread adoption of fairings on sports, and touring types of motorcycles. Originally the fairings were cowlings put around the front of the bike, increasing its frontal area.

Gradually they had become an integral part of the design. Modern fairings increase the frontal area at most by 5% compared to a naked machine. Fairing may carry headlights, instruments, and other items.

If the fairing is mounted on the frame, mounting equipment on the fairing reduces the weight and rotational inertia of the steering assembly, improving the handling. Types Streamliner: This is a full fairing as found on land speed record machines. The entire body of the motorcycle is covered to provide the lowest drag coefficient ratio attainable. The NSU Dolphin II (Delphin II) is a streamliner.

Dustbin fairing: A single-piece, streamlined shell covering the front half of a motorcycle resembling the nose of an aircraft, sometimes referred to as torpedo fairing. It dramatically reduced the frontal drag, but it was banned by F-d-ration Internationale de Motocyclisme (FIM) from racing in 1958, because it was thought that the frontal point of wind pressure made them highly unstable even with small amounts of yaw.

Other reasons cited for the ban were to ensure adequate steering range (lock-to-lock) and stability against crosswinds. FIM regulations forbid streamlining beyond the wheel spindles and require the rider’s arms and legs to be visible from the side. Dolphin fairing: It was called so because in early models the front wheel mud guard streamlined with the rising windshield part of the fairing resembled the dolphin’s beak from the side view.

They had become the norm since the ban of the dustbins. Full-fairing: Bodywork that covers both upper and lower portions of the motorcycle, as distinct from a half fairing, which only has an upper section, and the lower half of the motorcycle is exposed. The fairing on a race or sport bike is meant as an aerodynamic aid, so the windscreen is rarely looked through.

If the rider is sitting up at speed he will be buffeted by his rapid progress through the air and act as a parachute, slowing the bike, while if the rider lies flat on the tank behind the windscreen he generates much less aerodynamic drag. The high windscreen and handle-bar width of a touring fairing protect the upright rider from the worst of this, and the windscreen is functional.

Full fairings can also provide protection to the engine and chassis in the event of a crash where the fairings, rather than the engine covers and/or frame, slide on the road. Half-fairing: Fairing that features a windscreen and fairing extending at least below the handlebars, even as far as down to the sides of the cylinder block, though generally half-fairing doesn’t cover the sides of the crankcase or gear box.

A number of half-faired models have aftermarket kits available to extend the original half-fairing into a full fairing. Due to the popularity of these kits some manufacturers have started to supply their own full-fairing conversion kits and even offer their half-faired models new with a full-fairing kit fitted at the factory. Quarter fairing: A windscreen and minimal fairing extending around the headlight fixed to the triple clamp; also referred to as a bikini fairing.

Belly pan: Quarter and half fairings are often paired with a belly pan below the engine for diverting air flow away from under the engine to reduce aerodynamic lift, as well as cosmetic reasons. Some track day or racing rules require belly pans to catch leaked fluids. Materials Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) plastic is commonly used in original equipment sport bikes and certain aftermarket fairing manufacturers due to its strong, flexible and light weight properties.

The advantage of ABS over other plastics is that it combines the strength and rigidity of acrylonitrile and styrene with the toughness of polybutadiene rubber. The proportions of each property vary based on the targeted result. There are two common methods of producing ABS plastic fairing: injection and compression. Injection molds: ABS plastic is melted and injected into mold cavity. Constant pressure is applied to allow for material shrinkage.

The plastic then cools and hardens in the mold. Injection molds allows for uniform thickness throughout the entire piece. It gives the most accurate end product that fits well. Compression molds: The plastic is generally preheated is placed into a heated metal mold cavity and pressure is applied to force the plastic to contract and take the shape of the mold.

Heat and pressure is kept until the plastic cures the mold. The excess plastic is cut away and removed from the mold. Disadvantages to compression mold include varying product consistency and flashing, which is excess material attached to the molded part that needs to be removed where two or more parts of the mold meet.

Fiberglass is made of woven fibers, and is used as a reinforcing agent for many polymer products. The composite properly known as glass-reinforced plastic (GRP), is normally referred to by the name of its reinforcing material. Fiberglass fairings are commonly used on the race track. In most cases fiberglass is lighter, and more durable than ABS Plastic.

Damaged fiberglass can be repaired by applying new layers of woven fiberglass cloth mixed with a polymer such as epoxy, over the damaged area followed sanding and finishing. Carbon-fiber-reinforced polymer is the lightest, but most expensive, fairing material. It is used on the most extreme sport and racing motorcycle fairings.

Carbon Fiber Carbon fiber, alternatively graphite fiber, carbon graphite or CF, is a material consisting of fibers about 5–10 µm in diameter and composed mostly of carbon atoms. The carbon atoms are bonded together in crystals that are more or less aligned parallel to the long axis of the fiber. The crystal alignment gives the fiber high strength-to-volume ratio (making it strong for its size).

Several thousand carbon fibers are bundled together to form a tow, which may be used by itself or woven into a fabric. The properties of carbon fibers, such as high stiffness, high tensile strength, low weight, high chemical resistance, high temperature tolerance and low thermal expansion, make them very popular in aerospace, civil engineering, military, and motorsports, along with other competition sports.

However, they are relatively expensive when compared to similar fibers, such as glass fibers or plastic fibers. Carbon fibers are usually combined with other materials to form a composite. When combined with a plastic resin and wound or molded it forms carbon fiber reinforced plastic (often referred to as carbon fiber) which has a very high strength-to-weight ratio, and is extremely rigid although somewhat brittle.

However, carbon fibers are also composed with other materials, such as with graphite to form carbon-carbon composites, which have a very high heat tolerance. History of carbon fiber In 1958, Roger Bacon created high-performance carbon fibers at the Union Carbide Parma Technical Center, now GrafTech International Holdings, Inc. located outside of Cleveland, Ohio. Those fibers were manufactured by heating strands of rayon until they carbonized.

This process proved to be inefficient, as the resulting fibers contained only about 20% carbon and had low strength and stiffness properties. In the early 1960s, a process was developed by Dr. Akio Shindo at Agency of Industrial Science and Technology of Japan, using polyacrylonitrile (PAN) as a raw material. This had produced a carbon fiber that contained about 55% carbon.

The high potential strength of carbon fiber was realized in 1963 in a process developed by W. Watt, L. N. Phillips, and W. Johnson at the Royal Aircraft Establishment at Farnborough, Hampshire. The process was patented by the UK Ministry of Defence then licensed by the National Research Development Corporation (NRDC) to three British companies: Rolls-Royce, already making carbon fiber, Morganite and Courtaulds.

They were able to establish industrial carbon fiber production facilities within a few years, and Rolls-Royce took advantage of the new material’s properties to break into the American market with its RB-211 aero-engine. Public concern arose over the ability of British industry to make the best of this breakthrough.

In 1969 a House of Commons select committee inquiry into carbon fiber prophetically asked: How then is the nation to reap the maximum benefit without it becoming yet another British invention to be exploited more successfully overseas? Ultimately, this concern was justified. One by one the licensees pulled out of carbon-fiber manufacture.

Rolls-Royce’s interest was in state-of-the-art aero-engine applications. Its own production process was to enable it to be leader in the use of carbon-fiber reinforced plastics. In-house production would typically cease once reliable commercial sources became available. Unfortunately, Rolls-Royce pushed the state-of-the-art too far, too quickly, in using carbon fiber in the engine’s compressor blades, which proved vulnerable to damage from bird impact.

What seemed a great British technological triumph in 1968 quickly became a disaster as Rolls-Royce’s ambitious schedule for the RB-211 was endangered. Indeed, Rolls-Royce’s problems became so great that the company was eventually nationalized by the British government in 1971 and the carbon-fiber production plant was sold off to form Bristol Composites.

Given the limited market for a very expensive product of variable quality, Morganite also decided that carbon-fiber production was peripheral to its core business, leaving Courtaulds as the only big UK manufacturer. The company continued making carbon fiber, developing two main markets: aerospace and sports equipment. The speed of production and the quality of the product were improved.

Continuing collaboration with the staff at Farnborough proved helpful in the quest for higher quality, but, ironically, Courtaulds’s big advantage as manufacturer of the Courtelle precursor now became a weakness. Low cost and ready availability were potential advantages, but the water-based inorganic process used to produce Courtelle made it susceptible to impurities that did not affect the organic process used by other carbon-fiber manufacturers.

Nevertheless, during the 1980s Courtaulds continued to be a major supplier of carbon fiber for the sports-goods market, with Mitsubishi its main customer. But a move to expand, including building a production plant in California, turned out badly. The investment did not generate the anticipated returns, leading to a decision to pull out of the area.

Courtaulds ceased carbon-fiber production in 1991, though ironically the one surviving UK carbon-fiber manufacturer continued to thrive making fiber based on Courtaulds’s precursor. Inverness-based RK Carbon Fibres Ltd has concentrated on producing carbon fiber for industrial applications, and thus does not need to compete at the quality levels reached by overseas manufacturers.

During the 1970s, experimental work to find alternative raw materials led to the introduction of carbon fibers made from a petroleum pitch derived from oil processing. These fibers contained about 85% carbon and had excellent flexural strength. Structure and properties Each carbon filament thread is a bundle of many thousand carbon filaments. A single such filament is a thin tube with a diameter of 5–8 micrometers and consists almost exclusively of carbon.

The earliest generation of carbon fibers (e.g. T300, and AS4) had diameters of 7–8 micrometers. Later fibers (e.g. IM6) have diameters that are approximately 5 micrometers.

The atomic structure of carbon fiber is similar to that of graphite, consisting of sheets of carbon atoms (graphene sheets) arranged in a regular hexagonal pattern. The difference lies in the way these sheets interlock. Graphite is a crystalline material in which the sheets are stacked parallel to one another in regular fashion.

The intermolecular forces between the sheets are relatively weak Van der Waals forces, giving graphite its soft and brittle characteristics. Depending upon the precursor to make the fiber, carbon fiber may be turbostratic or graphitic, or have a hybrid structure with both graphitic and turbostratic parts present. In turbostratic carbon fiber the sheets of carbon atoms are haphazardly folded, or crumpled, together.

Carbon fibers derived from Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) are turbostratic, whereas carbon fibers derived from mesophase pitch are graphitic after heat treatment at temperatures exceeding 2200 C. Turbostratic carbon fibers tend to have high tensile strength, whereas heat-treated mesophase-pitch-derived carbon fibers have high Young’s modulus (i.e. high stiffness or resistance to extension under load) and high thermal conductivity. Applications Carbon fiber is most notably used to reinforce composite materials, particularly the class of materials known as carbon fiber or graphite reinforced polymers.

Non-polymer materials can also be used as the matrix for carbon fibers. Due to the formation of metal carbides and corrosion considerations, carbon has seen limited success in metal matrix composite applications. Reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC) consists of carbon fiber-reinforced graphite, and is used structurally in high-temperature applications.

The fiber also finds use in filtration of high-temperature gases, as an electrode with high surface area and impeccable corrosion resistance, and as an anti-static component. Molding a thin layer of carbon fibers significantly improves fire resistance of polymers or thermoset composites because a dense, compact layer of carbon fibers efficiently reflects heat.

The global demand on carbon fiber composites was valued at roughly US$10.8 billion in 2009, which declined 8–10% from the previous year. It is expected to reach US$13.2 billion by 2012 and to increase to US$18.6 billion by 2015 with an annual growth rate of 7% or more. Strongest demands come from aircraft aerospace, wind energy, as well as the automotive industry.

Synthesis Each carbon filament is produced from a precursor polymer. The precursor polymer is commonly rayon, polyacrylonitrile (PAN) or petroleum pitch. For synthetic polymers such as rayon or PAN, the precursor is first spun into filaments, using chemical and mechanical processes to initially align the polymer atoms in a way to enhance the final physical properties of the completed carbon fiber.

Precursor compositions and mechanical processes used during spinning may vary among manufacturers. After drawing or spinning, the polymer fibers are then heated to drive off non-carbon atoms (carbonization), producing the final carbon fiber. The carbon fibers may be further treated to improve handling qualities, then wound on to bobbins.

Wound bobbins are then used to supply machines that produce carbon fiber threads or yarn. A common method of manufacture involves heating the spun PAN filaments to approximately 300 -C in air, which breaks many of the hydrogen bonds and oxidizes the material. The oxidized PAN is then placed into a furnace having an inert atmosphere of a gas such as argon, and heated to approximately 2000 -C, which induces graphitization of the material, changing the molecular bond structure.

When heated in the correct conditions, these chains bond side-to-side (ladder polymers), forming narrow graphene sheets which eventually merge to form a single, columnar filament. The result is usually 93–95% carbon. Lower-quality fiber can be manufactured using pitch or rayon as the precursor instead of PAN. The carbon can become further enhanced, as high modulus, or high strength carbon, by heat treatment processes.

Carbon heated in the range of 1500–2000 -C (carbonization) exhibits the highest tensile strength (820,000 psi, 5,650 MPa or N/mm-), while carbon fiber heated from 2500 to 3000 -C (graphitizing) exhibits a higher modulus of elasticity (77,000,000 psi or 531 GPa or 531 kN/mm-). Textile Precursors for carbon fibers are polyacrylonitrile (PAN), rayon and pitch.

Carbon fiber filament yarns are used in several processing techniques: the direct uses are for prepregging, filament winding, pultrusion, weaving, braiding, etc. Carbon fiber yarn is rated by the linear density (weight per unit length, i.e. 1 g/1000 m = 1 tex) or by number of filaments per yarn count, in thousands. For example, 200 tex for 3,000 filaments of carbon fiber is three times as strong as 1,000 carbon fibers, but is also three times as heavy.

This thread can then be used to weave a carbon fiber filament fabric or cloth. The appearance of this fabric generally depends on the linear density of the yarn and the weave chosen. Some commonly used types of weave are twill, satin and plain.

Carbon fibers can be also knitted or braided.

BMW Motorrad

BMW Motorrad is the motorcycle brand of the German company BMW, part of its Corporate and Brand Development division. The current General Director of the unit is Hendrik von Kuenheim. BMW Motorrad has produced motorcycles since 1923, and revenues for 2009 were -1,069 million from the sale of 87,306 motorcycles, a drop on the 2008 figure of -1,230 million from the sales of 101,685 motorcycles.

In May 2011, the 2,000,000th motorcycle produced by BMW Motorrad was a R1200GS.

History

The company began as an aircraft engine manufacturer in the early 20th century and through World War I. BMW manufactured its first motorcycle in 1923, the R32, which featured a flat-twin boxer engine. BMW Motorrad still uses the flat-twin boxer configuration, but now manufactures motorcycles with a variety of engine configurations.

Current production

All BMW Motorrad’s motorcycle production takes place at its plant in Berlin, Germany, although some engines are manufactured in Austria, China, and Taiwan. Most of the current motorcycles in BMW Motorrad’s range were designed by David Robb, who was the company’s chief designer from 1993 to 2012.

BMW Motorrad produced 82,631 motorcycles in 2009, compared with 104,220 in 2008, a fall of 20.7% The most popular model is the R1200GS and its sibling R1200GS Adventure, which sold 24,467 units – accounting for 28% of BMW’s annual production. Current production includes a variety of shaft, chain, and belt driven models, with engines from 650 cc to 1,649 cc; and models designed for off-road, dual-purpose, sport, and touring activities.

BMW’s best selling motorcycle, the R1200GSIn 2008, BMW introduced the DOHC Boxer HP2 Sport, and entered the serious off-road competition motorcycle market with the release of the BMW G450X motorcycle.

BMW Motorrad motorcycles are categorized into product families, and each family is assigned a different letter prefix. The current families are:

C series – Maxi-scooters called Urban Mobility Vehicles by BMW

F series – parallel-twin engines of 798 cc capacity, featuring either chain or belt drive. Models are F650GS, F800GS, F800R, F800S and F800ST.

G series – single-cylinder engines of 449 to 652 cc capacity featuring chain drive. Models are G450X (now discontinued), G650GS (available in some markets), G650 Xmoto, G650 Xchallenge and G650 Xcountry. The 450 cc engines are manufactured by Kymco in Taiwan.

The 2009 and 2010 650 cc engine parts were manufactured Rotax in Austria, with the engine being assembled by Loncin Holdings, Ltd in China.

R series – twin-cylinder boxer engines of 1,170 cc capacity featuring shaft drive. Models are R1200GS, R1200R, R1200RT and R1200S.

K series – four-cylinder engines of 1,157 to 1,649 cc capacity featuring shaft drive. Models are K1200LT, K1300GT, K1300R and K1300S. In 2011, BMW Motorrad launched the six-cylinder 1,649 cc K1600GT and K1600GTL.

S1000RR – sport bike with transverse-mounted, 999 cc inline-four engine.

Racing

BMW Motorrad regularly enters its motorcycles in the Dakar Rally, an annual car, truck, and motorcycle race that runs from Europe to Africa and has featured riders such as Simon Pavey and motorcycling celebrity Charley Boorman. BMW Motorrad motorcycles have won the Dakar Rally six times.

In 2007, BMW Motorrad announced its entry to the 2009 Superbike World Championship season, where it is racing the BMW S1000RR. The 2009 season factory team was known as Team Alpha BMW and includes Spanish rider Ruben Xaus and Australian rider Troy Corser. In the 2010 season, Xaus and Corser were joined on the track by Team Reitwagen BMW riders Andrew Pitt and Roland Resch, also riding the S1000RR.

History of BMW motorcycles

BMW’s motorcycle history began in 1921 when the company commenced manufacturing engines for other companies. Motorcycle manufacturing now operates under the BMW Motorrad brand. BMW (Bayerische Motoren Werke AG) introduced the first motorcycle under its name, the R32, in 1923.

Motorcycle history

Pre-1921BMW began in 1916 as a reorganization of Rapp Motorenwerke, an aircraft engine manufacturer that began production before World War I. With the Armistice, the Treaty of Versailles banned the German air force and the manufacture of aircraft in Germany, so the company turned to making air brakes, industrial engines, agricultural machinery, toolboxes and office furniture and then to motorcycles and cars.

1921 – 1945

In 1921, BMW began manufacture of its M2B15 flat-twin engine. Designed by Max Friz for use as a portable industrial engine, the M2B15 was largely used by motorcycle manufacturers, notably Victoria of Nuremberg, and Bayerische Flugzeugwerke in their Helios motorcycle. Friz was also working on car engines.

BMW merged with Bayerische Flugzeugwerke in 1922, inheriting from them the Helios motorcycle and a small two-stroke motorized bicycle called the Flink. In 1923, BMW’s first across the frame version of the boxer engine was designed by Friz. The R32 had a 486 cc (29.7 cubic inches) engine with 8.5 hp (6.3 kW) and a top speed of 95 to 100 km/h (59 to 62 mph).

The engine and gearbox formed a bolt-up single unit. At a time when many motorcycle manufacturers used total-loss oiling systems, the new BMW engine featured a recirculating wet sump oiling system with a drip feed to roller bearings. This system was used by BMW until 1969, when they adopted the high-pressure oil system based on shell bearings and tight clearances, still in use today.

The R32 became the foundation for all future boxer-powered BMW motorcycles. BMW oriented the boxer engine with the cylinder heads projecting out on each side for cooling as did the earlier British ABC. Other motorcycle manufacturers, including Douglas and Harley-Davidson, aligned the cylinders with the frame, one cylinder facing towards the front wheel and the other towards the back wheel.

The R32 also incorporated shaft drive. BMW has continued to use shaft drive on its motorcycles and did not produce a chain driven model until the introduction of the F650 in 1994.

In 1937, Ernst Henne rode a supercharged 500 cc (31 cubic inches) overhead camshaft BMW 173.88 mph (279.83 km/h), setting a world record that stood for 14 years.

During World War II the Wehrmacht needed as many vehicles as it could get of all types and many other German companies were asked to build motorcycles. The R75, a copy of a Z-ndapp KS750, performed particularly well in the harsh operating environment of the North African Campaign. Motorcycles of every style had performed acceptably well in Europe, but in the desert the protruding cylinders of the flat-twin engine performed better than other configurations which overheated in the sun, and shaft drives performed better than chain-drives which were damaged by desert grit.

So successful were the BMWs as war-machines that the U.S. Army asked Harley-Davidson, Indian and Delco to produce a motorcycle similar to the side-valve BMW R71. Harley copied the BMW engine and transmission—simply converting metric measurements to inches—and produced the shaft-drive 750 cc (46 cubic inches) 1942 Harley-Davidson XA.

1945–1955

The end of World War II found BMW in ruins. Its plant outside of Munich was destroyed by Allied bombing. The Eisenach facility while badly damaged was not totally destroyed and tooling and machinery was safely stored nearby.

Contrary to popular accounts, the facility was not dismantled by the Soviets as reparations and sent back to the Soviet Union where it was reassembled in Irbit to make IMZ-Ural motorcycles; the IMZ plant was supplied to the Soviets by BMW under license prior to the commencement of the Great Patriotic War. After the war the terms of Germany’s surrender forbade BMW from manufacturing motorcycles. Most of BMW’s brightest engineers were taken to the US and the Soviet Union to continue their work on jet engines which BMW produced during the war.

When the ban on the production of motorcycles was lifted in Allied controlled Western Germany, BMW had to start from scratch. There were no plans, blueprints, or schematic drawings because they were all in Eisenach. Company engineers had to use surviving pre-war motorcycles to copy the bikes.

The first post-war BMW motorcycle in Western Germany, a 250 cc R24, was produced in 1948. The R24 was based on the pre-war R23, and was the only postwar West German BMW with no rear suspension. In 1949, BMW produced 9,200 units and by 1950 production surpassed 17,000 units.

BMW boxer twins manufactured from 1950 to 1956 included the 500 cc models R51/2 and 24 hp (18 kW) R51/3, the 600 cc models 26 hp (19 kW) R67, 28 hp (21 kW) R67/2, and R67/3, and the sporting 35 hp (26 kW) 600 cc model R68. All these models came with plunger rear suspensions, telescopic front forks, and chromed, exposed drive shafts. Except for the R68, all these twins came with bell-bottom front fenders and front stands.

The situation was very different in Soviet-controlled Eastern Germany where BMW’s sole motorcycle plant in Eisenach was producing R35 and a handful of R75 motorcycles for reparations. This resulted in one BMW motorcycle plant existing in Eisenach between 1945 and 1948 and two motorcycle companies existing between 1948 and 1952.

One was a BMW in Munich in Western Germany (later the German Federal Republic) and the other in Soviet controlled Eisenach, Eastern Germany (later the German Democratic Republic), both using the BMW name. Eventually in 1952. after the Soviets ceded control of the plant to the East German Government, and following a trademark lawsuit, this plant was renamed EMW (Eisenacher Motoren Werke). Instead of BMW’s blue-and-white roundel, EMW used a very similar red-and-white roundel as its logo.

No motorcycles made in East Germany after World War II were manufactured under the authority of BMW in Munich as there was no need for an occupying power to gain such authority. BMW R35 motorcycles were produced in Eisenach until 1952, when they became EMW.

1955–1969

As the 1950s progressed, motorcycle sales plummeted. In 1957, three of BMW’s major German competitors went out of business. In 1954, BMW produced 30,000 motorcycles.

BMW R67/3
BMW R67/3

By 1957, that number was less than 5,500.

In 1955, BMW began introducing a new range of motorcycles with Earles forks and enclosed drive shafts. These were the 26 hp (19 kW) 500 cc R50, the 30 hp (22 kW) 600 cc R60, and the 35 hp (26 kW) sporting 600 cc R69.

On June 8, 1959, John Penton rode a BMW R69 from New York to Los Angeles in 53 hours and 11 minutes, slashing over 24 hours from the previous record of 77 hours and 53 minutes set by Earl Robinson on a 45 cubic inch (740 cc) Harley-Davidson.

Although U.S. sales of BMW motorcycles were strong, BMW was in financial trouble. Through the combination of selling off its aircraft engine division and obtaining financing with the help of Herbert Quandt, BMW was able to survive. The turnaround was thanks in part to the increasing success of BMW’s automotive division. Since the beginnings of its motorcycle manufacturing, BMW periodically introduced single-cylinder models. In 1967, BMW offered the last of these, the R27.

Most of BMW’s offerings were still designed to be used with sidecars. By this time sidecars were no longer a consideration of most riders; people were interested in sportier motorcycles.

The 26 hp (19 kW) R50/2, 30 hp (22 kW) R60/2, and 42 hp (31 kW) R69S marked the end of sidecar-capable BMWs. Of this era, the R69S remains the most desirable example of the dubbed /2 (slash-two) series because of significantly greater engine power than other models, among other features unique to this design.

For the 1968 and 1969 model years only, BMW exported into the United States three US models. These were the R50US, the R60US, and the R69US. On these motorcycles, there were no sidecar lugs attached to the frame and the front forks were telescopic forks, which were later used worldwide on the slash-5 series of 1970 through 1973.

Earles-fork models were sold simultaneously in the United States as buyers had their choice of front suspensions.

1970–1982

In 1970, BMW introduced an entirely revamped product line of 500 cc, 600 cc and 750 cc displacement models, the R50/5, R60/5 and R75/5 respectively and came with the US telescopic forks noted above. The engines were a complete redesign. The roller and ball-bearings in the bottom end had been replaced by shell-type journal bearings similar to those used in modern car engines.

The camshaft, which had been at the top of the engine, was placed under the crankshaft, giving better ground clearance under the cylinders while retaining the low centre of gravity of the flat-twin layout. The new engine had an electric starter, although the traditional gearbox-mounted kick starter was retained. The styling of the first models included chrome-plated side panels and a restyled tank. The /5 series was given a longer rear swingarm, resulting in a longer wheelbase.

This improved the handling and allowed a larger battery to be installed.

The /5 models were short-lived, however, being replaced by another new product line in 1974. In that year the 500 cc model was deleted from the lineup and an even bigger 900 cc model was introduced, along with improvements to the electrical system and frame geometry. These models were the R60/6, R75/6 and the R90/6. In 1973 a supersport model, the BMW R90S, was introduced.

In 1975, the kick starter was finally eliminated.

1994 BMW R100RTIn 1977, the product line moved on to the /7 models. The R80/7 was added to the line. The R90 (898 cc) models, /6 and R90S models were replaced by updated versions with a new 1,000 cc; engine, the R100/7, the R100S and the new super sport model the R100RS with a full fairing. This sleek model, designed through wind-tunnel testing, produced 70 hp (51 kW) and had a top speed of 200 km/h (124 mph).

The R100RS had a shorter rear end ratio to overcome the higher wind resistance of the full fairing. Many period motorcycle tests in Germany (Das Motorrad) indicated it was actually slightly slower than the R100S with only 65 hp. In 1978, the R100RT was introduced into the lineup for the 1979 model year, as BMW’s first full-dress tourer.

In 1979, the R60 was replaced with the 650 cc R65, an entry-level motorcycle with 48 hp (36 kW) that had its very own frame design. Due to its smaller size and better geometrics, front and rear 18-inch (460 mm) wheels and a very light flywheel, was an incredibly well-handling bike that could easily keep up and even run away from its larger brothers when in proper hands on sinuous roads. BMW added a variant in 1982: the R65LS, a sportier model with a one-fourth fairing, double front disc brakes, stiffer suspension and different carburettors that added 5 hp (4 kW).

1983–2003

1986 BMW K100RS

BMW R1200C cruiser

1996-2004 BMW K1200RSIn early 1983, BMW introduced a 987 cc, in-line four-cylinder, water-cooled engine to the European market, the K100. The K series comes with a simplified and distinctive rear suspension, a single-sided swingarm. (In 1985 the traditionally powered boxer R80RT touring bike received this monolever rear suspension system and in 1987 the R100RT received it).

In 1985, BMW introduced a 750 cc three-cylinder version, this one smoothed with another first, a counterbalance shaft.

In 1986, BMW introduced an electrically adjustable windshield on the K100LT.

In 1988, BMW introduced ABS on its motorcycles. ABS became standard on all BMW K models. In 1993 ABS was first introduced on BMW’s boxer line on the R1100RS.

It has since become available as an option on the rest of BMW’s motorcycle range.

In 1989, BMW introduced its version of a full-fairing sport bike, the K1. It was based upon the K100 engine, but now with four valves per cylinder. Output was near 100 hp (75 kW).

In 1995, BMW ceased production of airhead 2-valve engines and moved its boxer-engined line completely over to the 4-valve oilhead system first introduced in 1993.

During this period, BMW introduced a number of motorcycles including:

R Series (airheads) – R65GS, R80GS, R100GS,

R Series (oilheads) – R850R/GS/C, R1100R/RS/RT/GS/S, R1150R/RS/RT/GS/S, R1200C

F Series – F650 Funduro, F650ST Strada, F650GS, F650GS Dakar, F650CS Scarver

K Series – K1, K100, K100RS, K100RT, K75, K75C, K75S, K75RT, K1100RS, K1100LT, K1200RS, K1200LT, K1200GT.

C1 enclosed scooter

The R1200C, produced from 1997 to 2004, was BMW Motorcycles only entry into the Cruiser market. At the other end of the model lineup, the C1, produced from 2000 to 2002, was an enclosed scooter, the only scooter to be offered for sale by BMW.

Since 2004

K series

On 25 September 2004, BMW globally launched a radically redesigned K Series motorcycle, the K1200S, containing an all new in-line four-cylinder, liquid-cooled engine featuring 123 kW (165 hp). The K1200S was primarily designed as a Super Sport motorcycle, albeit larger and heavier than the closest Japanese competitors. Shortly after the launch of the K1200S, problems were discovered with the new power plant leading to a recall until the beginning of 2005, when corrective changes were put in place.

In the years after the launch of K1200S, BMW has also launched the K1200R naked roadster, and the K1200GT sport tourer, which started to appear in dealer showrooms in spring (March–June) 2006. All three new K-series motorcycles are based on the new in-line four-cylinder engine, with slightly varying degrees of power. In 2007, BMW added the K1200R Sport, a semi-faired sport touring version of the K1200R.

In October 2008, BMW launched three new 1,300 cc K-series models: the K1300R, K1300S and K1300GT. The K1300 models feature an increase in engine capacity of 136 cc, an increase in power to 175 hp (130 kW), newly styled fairings and a new exhaust system.

In 2011, BMW launched two six-cylinder, 1,600 cc, K1600GT and K1600GTL motorcycles, the former intended as a sport-tourer and the latter as a luxury touring model. The engine produces 160 hp (120 kW) and 129 lb·ft (175 N·m). They also offer adaptive headlights, traction control, ABS, tire pressure monitors, and a variety of sound systems.

R series

In 2004, bikes with the opposed-twin-cylinder boxer engine were also revamped. The new boxer displacement is 1,170 cc (71 cubic inches). The engine is more powerful, and all of the motorcycles that use it are lighter than their predecessors.

The first motorcycle to be launched with this updated engine was the R1200GS dual-purpose motorcycle. The R1200RT tourer and R1200ST sports tourer followed shortly behind. BMW then introduced the 175 kg (390 lb), 105 kW (141 hp) HP2 Enduro, and the 223 kg (490 lb), 100 hp (75 kW) R1200GS Adventure, each specifically targeting the off-road and adventure-touring motorcycle segment, respectively.

In 2007, the HP2 Enduro was joined by the road-biased HP2 Megamoto fitted with smaller alloy wheels and street tyres.

In 2006, BMW launched the R1200R and the R1200S, which is rated at 90 kW (121 hp) @ 8,250 rpm.

F series

BMW has also paid attention to the F Series in 2006. It lowered the price on the existing F650GS and F650GS Dakar, and eliminated the F650CS to make room in the lineup for the all-new F800 Series. The new motorcycles are powered by a parallel twin engine, built by Rotax.

They feature either a belt drive system, similar to the belt drive found on the now defunct F650CS, or chain drive. Initially, BMW launched two models of the new F800 Series, the F800S sport bike and the F800ST sport tourer; these were followed by F650GS and F800GS dual-purpose motorcycles, both of which use the 798 cc engine despite the different names.

G series

In October 2006, following a nomenclature change, BMW announced the G series of offroad style motorcycles co-developed with Aprilia. These were equipped with an uprated single-cylinder water-cooled 652 cc fuel-injected engine producing 53 hp (40 kW), similar to the one fitted to the single-cylinder F650GS, and equipped with chain drive. Initially, there were three models in the series, all produced for BMW by Aprilia in their North Italian Scorz- Plant, each focused on a slightly different market:

G650X challenge hard enduro featuring 21 inch front and 18 inch rear spoked wheels

G650X country scrambler / adventure sports featuring 19 inch front and 17 inch rear spoked wheels

G650X moto street moto / supermoto featuring 17 inch cast alloy wheels.

The G450X, a hard-enduro was introduced in 2007, and discontinued in 2010.

At the end of 2010 BMW introduced the G650GS, an extensively facelifted and reworked version of the original F650GS.

HP2 Series

First was the 175 kg (390 lb), 105 hp (78 kW) HP2 Enduro, followed by the road-biased HP2 Megamoto fitted with smaller alloy wheels and street tyres in 2007.

In April 2007, BMW announced its return to competitive road racing, entering a factory team with a Sport Boxer version of the R1200S to four 24-hour endurance races. In 2008 they released this as the HP2 Sport.

S1000RR

The S1000RR is a sport bike launched to compete in the 2009 Superbike World Championship. It is powered by a 999 cc (61 cu in) inline-four engine producing 193 bhp (144 kW).

BMW R67/3


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