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Zündapp CX 25

The Volkswagen Type 1, widely as the Volkswagen Beetle and Volkswagen is an economy car produced by the German maker Volkswagen (VW) 1938 until 2003. over 21 million

manufactured in an rear-engined, rear-wheel drive the Beetle is the longest-running and most-manufactured of a single design platform in the world.


Although in the 1930s, the Beetle was only in significant numbers from onwards, when the model was designated the Volkswagen Type 1, and simply as the Volkswagen. Later were designated

VW 1200, 1500, 1302 or 1303, the three indicating engine and the latter two being derived the type number and not indicative of capacity. The model became known in its home country as the

(German for beetle) and was later as such in Germany and as the Volkswagen in other countries.

In the 1950s, the was more comfortable and powerful most European small having been designed for high speed on the Autobahn. It a top seller in the U.S. owing of its success to high

build-quality and advertising, ultimately giving to variants, including the Volkswagen Ghia and the Volkswagen Type 2

Along with cars the Morris Minor, Fiat Renault 4CV and Dauphine, and Citroen the Beetle pioneered the modern economy car and later served as the for the initial two generations of

North compact cars, including the Corvair and Ford Falcon, as as later subcompact cars as the Chevrolet Vega and Ford

The Beetle had marked a significant led by Volkswagen, Fiat, and Renault the rear-engine, rear-wheel drive had increased from 2.6 percent of Western Europe’s car production in to 26.6 percent in

1956. The Citroen 2CV and other European marked a later trend to drive in the European small car a trend that would to dominate that market. In Volkswagen’s own front-wheel drive model

succeeded the Beetle, and in VW introduced the New Beetle, built on the platform with styling recalled the original Beetle.

In a international poll for the world’s influential car of the 20th century the came fourth after the Model T, the Mini, and the Citroën DS.


The Beetle featured a rear-wheel drive, air-cooled cylinder, boxer engine in a bodywork featuring a flat windscreen, accommodating four and providing luggage storage the front bonnet

and behind the seat and offering a Cx or coefficient of of 0.41. The bodywork attached eighteen bolts to its nearly chassis which featured a structural tunnel. Front and suspension featured torsion

along with front and stabilizer bars providing suspensions at all wheels. Certain features were subsequently including mechanical drum split-window rear windows,

direction-indicators and the non-synchronized gearbox. features, including its distinctive shape, endured.

Its engine, and cylinder heads were of light alloy. An engine oil (located in the engine fan’s ensured optimal engine temperature and long engine optimized by a thermostat that

the oil cooler when the engine was Later models of the carburetor an automatic choke. Engine air passed through a metallic while heavier particles captured by an oil bath. After

steering featured a hydraulic that absorbed steering

Indicative of the car’s simple, design, the interior featured metal surfaces, a metal consolidating instruments in a single, binnacle, adjustable front a fold-down rear seat, swing-out

rear windows, windows with pivoting windows, heating via air-to-air manifolds operating off the engine’s and a windshield washer system eschewed the complexity and cost of an electric pump and

instead its pressurization from the car’s tire (located in the front compartment) which was accordingly to accommodate the washer function.

the overall appearance of the Beetle little over its life it received over 78,000 changes during its production.

The People’s Car

In 1931, Ferdinand developed the Porsche Type 12, or für Jedermann (car for for Zündapp. Porsche already the flat-4 cylinder engine, and a swing axle rear

(invented by Edmund Rumpler), Zündapp insisted on a water-cooled radial engine. In 1932, prototypes were running. All of cars were lost the war, the last in a bombing in Stuttgart in 1945.

The Zündapp were followed by the Porsche 32, designed in 1933 for NSU Motorenwerke AG, motorcycle company. The Type 32 was in design to the Type 12, but had a flat-4 NSU’s exit from car

resulted in the Type 32 being at the prototype stage.

In 1933, Hitler gave the order to Porsche to develop a Volkswagen people’s car in German). The epithet literally, people’s- had been applied to other Nazi consumer goods such

as the (people’s radio). Hitler a basic vehicle capable of two adults and three children at 100 (62 mph). The People’s Car would be to citizens of the Third Reich a

savings scheme, or Sparkarte booklet), at 990 Reichsmark, about the of a small motorcycle (an average being around 32RM a


Initially designated the Type 60 by Ferdinand Porsche, the team included Erwin and Karl Rabe. In October the first two Type 60 prototypes, as the V1 and V2 (V for Versuchswagen, or test car),

ready. In 1936, testing of further V3 prototypes, built in Stuttgart shop, began. A of thirty W30 development models, for Porsche by Daimler-Benz, underwent mi (2,900,000 km) of further testing

in All cars already had the distinctive shape and the air-cooled, rear-mounted Included in this batch was a soft top called the Cabrio A further batch of 44 VW38 cars produced in

1938 split rear windows; the split window and the dash retained on production Type 1s 1952. The VW38 cars followed by another batch of 50 cars, completed in July

The car was designed to be as simple as possible so that there was less to go the aircooled 25 hp (19 kW) 995 cc (60.7 cu in) motors especially effective in actions of the Afrika Korps in Africa’s

heat. This was due to the built-in oil and the superior performance of the flat-4 configuration. The suspension design compact torsion bars of coil or leaf springs. The is nearly airtight and

will for a few minutes on water.

The Volkswagen was named the KdF-Wagen by Hitler the project was officially announced in The name refers to Kraft Freude (‘Strength Through the official leisure organization of the Reich.

The model village of des KdF-Wagens was created near in Lower Saxony in 1938 for the of the workers at the newly-built factory. World War II, it was known as the Volkswagen 1, but became more

commonly as the Beetle.

Influence of Tatra

The car designer Hans Ledwinka was a of Porsche working at the Czechoslovakian Tatra. In 1931, Tatra the V570 prototype, which had a flat-twin engine engine at the rear. This was

followed in by a second V570 prototype a streamlined body similar to of the Porsche Type 32. The rear-engine, drive layout was a challenge for air cooling, and during development of the larger

V8 engined Tatra T77 in Tatra registered numerous related to air flow into the engine compartment. The use of Tatra’s air cooling designs later one of ten issues for which Tatra suit against VW.

Both and Porsche were influenced by the Hitler was a keen automotive and had ridden in Tatras during tours of Czechoslovakia. He had also numerous times with After one of these

dinners remarked to Porsche, This is the car for my From 1933 onwards, and Porsche met regularly to discuss designs, and Porsche admitted sometimes I looked over his and sometimes he

looked over mine designing the Volkswagen. The Tatra T97 of had a 1749 cc, rear-located, rear-wheel air-cooled four-cylinder boxer It cost 5600 RM and accommodated passengers in its extensively

streamlined body, which provided storage under the front and behind the rear seats. It featured a similar central tunnel found in the Beetle.

before the start of the Second War, Tatra had ten legal filed against VW for infringement of Although Ferdinand Porsche was to pay a settlement to Tatra, he was stopped by who said he would

solve his Tatra launched a lawsuit, but was stopped when Germany Czechoslovakia in 1938, resulting in the factory coming under administration in October 1938. The along with the T57, ordered

by Hitler to be removed the Tatra display at the 1939 Autosalon and Tatra was later to concentrate on heavy trucks and engines, with all car models, for the V8-engined Tatra T87, discontinued.

The matter was re-opened World War II and in 1961 Volkswagen Ringhoffer-Tatra 3,000,000 Deutsche in an out of court settlement.


The factory had only produced a of cars by the start of the war in 1939; the volume-produced versions of the car’s were military vehicles, the 82 Kübelwagen (approximately 52,000 and the amphibious

Type 166 Schwimmwagen 14,000 built).

A handful of were produced specifically for primarily for the Nazi elite, in the 19401945, but production figures small. Because of gasoline a few wartime Holzbrenner Beetles fueled by

wood pyrolysis gas under the hood. In addition to the Schwimmwagen, and a handful of others, the managed another wartime the Kommandeurwagen; a Beetle body on the Kübelwagen chassis.

669 Kommandeurwagens produced up to 1945, when all was halted because of heavy to the factory by Allied air raids. of the essential equipment had already moved to underground bunkers for

which let production resume after hostilities ended.

production and boom

In occupied the Allies followed the Morgenthau to remove all German war potential by or partial pastoralization. As part of in the Industrial plans for Germany, the for which industry Germany was to

be to retain were set out. car production was set at a maximum of 10% of the 1936 car numbers.

Mass production of VW automobiles did not start until occupation. The Volkswagen factory was over by the Americans to British in 1945; it was to be dismantled and shipped to Thankfully for

Volkswagen, no British car was interested in the factory; the vehicle not meet the fundamental technical of a motor-car. it is quite unattractive to the buyer. To build the car commercially

be a completely uneconomic enterprise. The survived by producing cars for the Army instead. Allied policy changed in late to mid 1947, although heavy continued to be dismantled until

In March 1947, Herbert helped change policy by There is the illusion that the New left after the annexations can be to a ‘pastoral state’. It cannot be unless we exterminate or move

people out of it.

The re-opening of the factory is accredited to British Army Major Ivan Hirst Hirst was ordered to take of the heavily bombed factory, the Americans had captured. His first was to remove

an unexploded … had fallen through the roof and itself between some of irreplaceable production equipment; if the had exploded, the Beetle’s fate have been sealed. persuaded the British military

to 20,000 of the cars, and by March the factory was producing 1,000 a month, which Hirst was the limit set by the availability of materials. this period, the car reverted to its name of Volkswagen

and the town was renamed Wolfsburg. The 1,785 Volkswagen Type or Beetles were made in

The jeweled one-millionth VW Beetle

the British Army-led restart of former Opel manager formerly a detractor of the Volkswagen) Nordhoff was appointed director of the factory. Under Nordhoff, increased dramatically

over the decade, with the one-millionth car off the assembly line by 1955. this post-war period, the had superior performance in its category a top speed of 115 km/h (71 mph) and km/h (060 mph)

in seconds with fuel of 6.7 l/100 km (36 mpg) for the standard 25 kW (34 hp) This was far superior to the Citroën 2CV was aimed at a low speed/poor road peasant market and Morris that was

designed for a market had no motorways / freeways, and even with more advanced and small cars like the Mini.

In Small Wonder, Henry Nelson wrote: The fires up immediately without a It has tolerable road-handling and is economical to Although a small car, the has great elasticity and gave the of

better output than its nominal size.

Opinion in the States was not flattering, however, because of the characteristic differences the American and European car markets. Ford II once described the car as a box. The Ford company was

the entire VW works after the war for Ford’s right-hand man Ernest was asked what he thought, and Henry II, What we’re offered here, Mr. Ford, worth a damn!

During the the car was modified progressively: the obvious changes mostly concerned the windows. In March 1953, the oval two-piece rear was replaced by a slightly larger window. More

dramatically, in 1957 a much larger width rear window the oval one. 1964 saw the of a widened cover for the light the rear licence plate. the end of 1964, the height of the side

and windscreen grew slightly, the cabin a less pinched this coincided with the of a very slightly curved windscreen, though the curve was noticeable. The same body during 1966,

with a cc engine in place of the 1200 cc it was only in the 1973 model Beetle that the Beetle an obviously curved windscreen. The windscreen remained on the standard

There were also under the bonnet. In 1954, added 2 mm to the cylinder bore, the displacement from 1,131 cc to cc. This coincided with to various key components including a of the

crankshaft. This increased from 33 bhp to a claimed 40 bhp and improved the free revving abilities compromising torque at lower speeds. At the same time, ratios were progressively as,

little by little, the octane of available fuel was raised in markets during the 1950s and


In 1951, Volkswagen a 1.3 L diesel engine. Volkswagen only 2 air-cooled boxer engines that were not and installed one engine in a Type 1 and in a Type 2. The diesel Beetle was tested on

the Nürburgring and achieved km/h (062 mph) in 60

Introduction to Ireland

Volkswagen its involvement in Ireland when in Motor Distributors Limited, by Stephen O’Flaherty secured the for the country at that years Motor Show. In 1950, Beetles started arriving

Dublin packed in crates in was termed completely knocked (CKD) form ready to be The vehicles were assembled in a tram depot at 162 Shelbourne in Ballsbridge. This is now the premises for

Motors who are still a Volkswagen The first Volkswagen ever outside Germany was built This vehicle is now on display at the Museum in Wolfsburg.

Introduction to the UK

The Volkswagen Beetle dealer in the UK was Co. Ltd. in Sheffield, which selling Volkswagens in 1953. Gilder had been fascinated by the design and engineering of the Beetle he came across one in

Belgium during the war.[citation He applied for the franchise as soon as the presented itself and became representative in the North of England.

VW 19531957

During this the rear window of the VW Beetle the bar in the center and as a result has been to as the oval or oval window

VW Beetle 1967

1967 Beetle Engine 1500 cc OHV H4, 40 (54 hp) @ 4200 rpm, 105 N·m (77 @ 2600,

bore 83 mm,

… 69 mm,

ratio 7.5:1

Transmission manual

Wheelbase 2,400 mm in)

Length 4,079 mm (160.6 in)

1,539 mm (60.6 in)

Curb 840 kg (1,900 lb)

The Volkswagen Beetle significant changes for the 1967 While the car appeared similar to models, much of the drivetrain was upgraded. Some of the changes to the included a bigger engine for

the year in a row. Horsepower had increased to 37 kW (50 hp) the previous year, and for it was increased even more, to 40 kW (54

On US models, the output of the electrical was increased from 180 to 360 watts, and from a 6-volt to a 12-volt The clutch disc also in size, and changes were to the flywheel, braking system,

and axle. New standard equipment two-speed windscreen wipers, lights, a driver’s armrest on the locking buttons on the doors, and a side exterior mirror.

Zündapp CX 25
Zündapp CX 25

In 1967, inventor Don P. Dixon of San Texas filed and was ultimately a patent for the first air conditioning specifically designed for the Beetle, were soon offered by US

The 1967 model weighed 840 kg lb), which was a typical for a European car at this time. Top was 130 km/h (81 mph).

That year, in accord with the enacted U.S. Federal Vehicle Safety Standard the clear glass headlamp were deleted; the headlamps brought forward to the leading of the front fenders, and the

sealed-beam were exposed and surrounded by bezels. For the 1968 model Beetles sold outside America received the same upright and forward headlamp but with replaceable-bulb headlamps

with ECE regulations rather the U.S. sealed beams.

The Beetle and final evolution

In alongside continued production of the Beetle, a Type 1 variant featured MacPherson strut suspension and a redesigned front Officially known (and in Europe) as the VW 1302 from

and VW 1303 from 1973 but commonly called Super the new stretched nose design the dual parallel torsion bar which had compromised trunk and relocated the spare tire a near vertical to a low

horizontal The redesign resulted in a tighter radius despite a 20 mm (0.79 in) wheelbase, and a doubling of the front cargo volume. As with models, air pressure from the tire

pressurized the windshield canister, in lieu of an electric

1972 Super Beetles had an 11% rear window (4 mm (0.16 in) larger front brakes, rows of vents (versus two previously) on the engine deck tail lights incorporating lights, a four-spoke

energy-absorbing wheel and steering column, and an compartment socket for a proprietary VW system.

In 1973, the VW 1303 a curved windscreen, pushed and away from the passengers, a redesigned, padded dashboard to the pre-1973 vertical dash. A heater fan, higher mudguards, and larger

tail were added. The changes to the wiper housing and curved resulted in slight redesign of the hood, making the 1971 and Super Beetle hoods

For 1974, the previous flat bumper mounting brackets replaced with tubular restoring energy absorbing effectively shock absorbers for the on North American market These cars also got

stronger 5mph bumpers added an inch to the length of the The steering knuckle and consequently the attachment point of the strut was to improve handling and stability in the of a tire blowout. This

struts from pre-1974 Beetles are not interchangeable with

1975 models featured Air Control (AFC) Fuel on U.S. Canadian, and Japanese a derivative of the more complex fuel injection system in the Volkswagen Type III and equivalent to L-jetronic.

The fuel injected also received a new muffler and the of an upstream catalytic converter on some models (e.g. necessitating a bulge in the rear sheet metal directly the rear bumper, and

replacing the dual pea shooter pipes a single offset tailpipe fuel injected models at a glance. Other changes rack and pinion steering the traditional worm and roller on

Super Beetles, and a larger plate lamp housing the engine lid. The front indicators were moved the top of the fenders into the bumper on European models.

In 1976, the Auto-stick transmission and the Super sedan were discontinued, VW continuing to market the standard and VW 1303 convertible. 1976-on received no significant engineering

only a few cosmetic touches and new options, including the Champagne models (white on white was one to the final 1979 Epilogue black on black, in salute to the Beetles produced in the 1930s.

model sedans received seats with separate restraints.

Beetle Cabriolet

The Cabriolet began production in by Karmann in Osnabrück. It was in 1948 Wilhelm Karmann bought a VW limousine and converted it into a convertible. After successfully it at VW in Wolfsburg,

production started in After a number of stylistic and alterations made to the Karmann (corresponding to the many changes VW to the Beetle throughout its history), the of 331,847 cabriolets came off

the belt on 10 January 1980.

were other, less-numerous as well. The Hebmüller cabriolet Type 14A), a sporty was built between 1949 and it numbered 696. The Type a fixed-top cabriolet, was produced by as

a police and fire unit; 203 assembled between January and March 1953.

Beetle boomed in the 1960s, thanks to advertising campaigns, and the Beetle’s for reliability and sturdiness. On 17 February when Beetle No. 15,007,034 was Beetle production surpassed of the

previous record holder, the Model T. By 1973, total was over 16 million, and by 23 June over 21 million had been

As of 2009, the Beetle is arguably the best-selling car design. More of the Toyota Corolla brand been sold, but there been 10 total redesigns of the each amounting to a new car design the same name.


extremely successful in the 1960s, the was faced with stiff from more modern The Japanese had refined rear-wheel-drive, front-engine small cars to they sold well in the

American market, and Americans their own similarly sized Chevrolet Vega, Ford and AMC Gremlin in the 1970s. The superminis in adopted even more transverse-engine front-wheel-drive

layouts, and began dropping off in the mid 1970s. had been several unsuccessful to replace or supplement the Beetle in the VW line throughout the 1960s; the 3, Type 4, and the NSU-based K70 were all

successful than the Beetle, aimed at more upscale for which VW lacked credibility. The on the Beetle meant that was in financial crisis by 1974. It German government funding to

the Beetle’s replacement. Only production lines at Wolfsburg to the new watercooled, front-engined, front-wheel Golf designed by Giorgetto in 1974, (sold in North as the Rabbit) did

Volkswagen produce a car as as the Beetle. The Golf would be redesigned over its lifetime its sixth generation in 2008 only a few components carried between generations, while the

used only minor of its original design.

The Golf did not Beetle production, which in smaller numbers at other factories until 19 January when mainstream production to Brazil and Mexico, markets low operating cost was more

It is important to note that the Cabriolet was still produced for the American and European markets in until 10 January 1980. The Beetle was produced in Puebla, in July 2003. The final of 3,000

Beetles were as 2004 models and badged as the Edición, with whitewall a host of previously discontinued trim, and the choice of two special colors taken from the New Production in Brazil ended in

then started again in and continued until 1996. sold Beetle sedans in the States until August (the Beetle convertible/Cabriolet was until January 1980) and in until 1985, with

companies continuing to import produced in Mexico after The Beetle outlasted most automobiles which had copied the air-cooled engine layout as those by Subaru, Fiat, and General Motors. Porsche’s

coupes which were based on Volkswagen parts and continue to use the classic rear layout (which later water-cooled) in the Porsche 911 series, remains competitive in the first of the

21st century.

Worldwide end of

As of 2002 over 21 million 1s had been produced, but by 2003, production had fallen to 30,000 a peak of 1.3 million in 1971. VW the end of production in June 2003, decreasing demand, and the final

Type 1 VW Beetle (No. rolled off the production line at Mexico, on 30 July 2003 65 after its original launch and 58-year production run (counting 1945, the year VW recognizes as

the year of non-Nazi funded This last Beetle, El Rey (Spanish for The King after a Mexican song by José Jiménez). was delivered to the company’s in Wolfsburg, Germany.

To celebrate the Volkswagen marketed a final series of 3,000 Beetles as Última Edición (Final in light blue (Aquarius or beige (Harvest Moon Each car included the 1.6 engine,

tires, a CD player with speakers, chrome bumpers, hub caps and exterior mirrors, a emblem above the front handle, chrome glove box body coloured wheels, glass, a rear parcel

and VW Ultima Edicion plaque. At pesos, the model cost $1,300 more than the model.

A mariachi band production of the last car. In there was also an advertising as a goodbye for the Beetle. For example, in one of the ads was a small parking space on the and many big cars tried

to in it, but could not. After a a sign appears in that space saying: Es increíble que un tan pequeño deje un vacío tan (It is incredible that a car so small can such a large void).

depicted the rear end of a 1954 (year in which Volkswagen established in Mexico) in the left of the ad, reading Erase una vez. upon a time. ) and the last Beetle in the right side, Fin

(The end). There other ads with the same tone. The Volkswagen Sedan is as a taxi in Mexico City up to

The Mexican government is removing type of taxi and already the green colours change red-gold.

Zündapp CX 25
Zündapp CX 25
Zündapp CX 25
Zündapp CX 25
Zündapp CX 25
Zündapp CX 25

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