Moto GP 2013 – 4° : Forse questa volta 27 2013 – Youtube video

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Youtube: 27 2013

Moto GP 2013 – 4°. Forse questa volta L’incidente l’ho causato io xD. HD 720P

Duration: 712 Author: CiccioGamer89

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Grand Prix motorcycle racing

Road Racing World Championship Grand Prix is the premier championship of motorcycle road racing. It is currently divided into three classes: MotoGP, Moto2 and Moto3. All three classes use four-stroke engines. In 2010, 250cc two-strokes were replaced by the new Moto2 600cc four-stroke class.

In 2012, 125cc two-strokes were replaced by the Moto3 250cc four-stroke class with a weight limit of 65kg with fuel, and the engine capacity for MotoGP increased from 800cc to 1,000cc.

Grand Prix motorcycles are purpose-built racing machines that are neither available for purchase by the general public nor can be ridden legally on public roads. This contrasts with the various production-based categories of racing, such as the Superbike World Championship, that feature modified versions of road-going motorcycles available to the public.

Contents

1 Overview 1.1 Chronology

2 Riders 2.1 Champions

3 MotoGP circuits 4 Specifications 4.1 MotoGP class 4.2 Moto2 class 4.3 Moto3 class 4.4 Engine Specifications 4.5 Weights

5 Tyres 6 Scoring system 7 In media 8 See also 9 References 10 External links

Overview [ edit ]

A Road Racing World Championship Grand Prix was first organized by the Fédération Internationale de Motocyclisme (FIM) in 1949. The commercial rights are now owned by Dorna Sports, with the FIM remaining as the sport sanctioning body. Teams are represented by the International Road Racing Teams Association (IRTA) and manufacturers by the Motorcycle Sport Manufacturers Association (MSMA).

Rules and changes to regulations are decided between the four entities, with Dorna casting a tie-breaking vote. In cases of technical modifications, the MSMA can unilaterally enact or veto changes by unanimous vote among its members. [ 1 ] These 4 entities compose the Grand Prix Commission.

There have traditionally been several races at each event for various classes of motorcycles, based on engine size, and one class for sidecars. Classes for 50cc, 80cc, 125cc, 250cc, 350cc, and 500cc solo machines have existed over time, and 350cc and 500cc sidecars. Up through the 1950s and most of the 1960s, four-stroke engines dominated all classes.

In part this was due to rules which allowed a multiplicity of cylinders (meaning smaller pistons, producing higher revs) and a multiplicity of gears (giving narrower power bands, affording higher states of tune). In the 1960s, two-stroke engines began to take root in the smaller classes.

In 1969, the FIM—citing high development costs for non-works teams—brought in new rules restricting all classes to six gears and most to two cylinders (four cylinders in the case of the 350cc and 500cc classes). This led to a mass walk-out of the sport by the previously highly successful Honda, Suzuki and Yamaha manufacturer teams, skewing the results tables for the next several years, with MV Agusta effectively the only works team left in the sport until Yamaha (1973) and Suzuki (1974) returned with new two-stroke designs.

By this time, two-strokes completely eclipsed the four-strokes in all classes. In 1979, Honda on its return to GP racing made an attempt to return the four-stroke to the top class with the NR500, but this project failed, and in 1983, even Honda was winning with a two-stroke 500. The 50cc class was replaced by an 80cc class, then the class was dropped entirely in the 1990s, after being dominated primarily by Spanish and Italian makes.

The 350cc class vanished in the 1980s. Sidecars were dropped from World Championship events in the 1990s (see Superside), reducing the field to 125s, 250s, and 500s.

Yamaha YZR-M1 MotoGP bike (2006)

MotoGP, the premier class of GP motorcycle racing, has changed dramatically in recent years. From the mid-1970s through 2001, the top class of GP racing allowed 500cc with a maximum of four cylinders, regardless of whether the engine was a two-stroke or four-stroke. Consequently, all machines were two-strokes, due to the greater power output for a given engine capacity.

Some two- and three-cylinder two-stroke 500s were seen, but though they had a minimum-weight advantage under the rules, typically attained higher corner speed and could qualify well, they lacked the power of the four-cylinder machines. In 2002, rule changes were introduced to facilitate the phasing out of the two strokes. The rules permitted manufacturers to choose between running two-strokes engines (500cc or less) or four-strokes (990cc or less).

Manufacturers were also permitted to employ their choice of engine configuration. Despite the significantly increased costs involved in running the new four-stroke machinery, given their extra 490cc capacity advantage, the four-strokes were soon able to dominate their two-stroke rivals. As a result, by 2003 no two-stroke machines remained in the MotoGP field.

The 125cc and 250cc classes still consist exclusively of two-stroke machines. In 2007, the MotoGP class had its maximum engine displacement capacity reduced to 800cc for a minimum of 5 years. For the 2012 season the capacity has increased again to 1,000cc. [ 2 ]


A typical MotoGP season.

The 2008 racing calendar consisted of 18 rounds in 15 different countries (Qatar, Spain which hosted 3 rounds, Portugal, China, France, Italy, Great Britain, the Netherlands, Germany, USA which hosted 2 rounds, Czech Republic, San Marino, Japan, Australia and Malaysia). Exclusive to the MotoGP class, there was also a USA round at Mazda Raceway Laguna Seca in Monterey, California for the 800cc class only, this is because the paddock is not large enough to also include the other 2 classes.

In 2008 a MotoGP event was held at the Indianapolis Motor Speedway for the first time on a newly prepared track, and observers noted that the Speedway had hosted motorcycle racing before cars raced there. All three classes were scheduled to race but severe wind and rain prevented the 250cc class from racing. MotoGP racing at Indianapolis is counterclockwise, with a new Snake Pit complex past the start-finish line before heading down the Turn 1 short chute and into the infield section.

The grid is composed of three columns (four for the 125cc and 250cc classes) and contains approximately 20 riders. Grid positions are decided in descending order of qualifying speed, the fastest on the ‘pole’ or first position. Races last approximately 45 minutes, each race a sprint from start to finish without pitting for fuel or tyres.

In 2005, a flag-to-flag rule for MotoGP was introduced. Previously, if a race started dry and rain fell, riders or officials could red-flag (stop) the race and either restart or resume on ‘wet’ tyres. Now, if rain falls a white flag is shown, indicating that riders can pit to swap the motorcycle on which they started the race for an identical one, as long as the tyres are different (that is, intermediates instead of wets, or slicks instead of wets)[1].

Besides different tyres, the wet-weather bikes have steel brake rotors and different brake pads instead of the carbon discs and pads used on the ‘dry’ bikes. This is because the carbon brakes need to be very hot to function properly, and the water cools them too much. The suspension is also ‘softened’ up somewhat for the wet weather.

When a rider crashes, track marshals upstream of the incident wave a yellow flag, prohibiting passing in that area; one corner farther upstream, a stationary yellow flag is shown. Passing in an area of the track covered by a yellow flag is prohibited; if a fallen rider cannot be evacuated safely from the track, the race is red-flagged.

Motorcycle crashes are usually one of two types: lowside, with the rider initially following his upended bike, and the more dangerous highside, with the rider ejected ahead of the machine. Increased use of traction control has made highsides much less frequent.

According to one estimate, leasing a top-level motorcycle for a rider costs about 3 to 3.5 million dollars for a racing season. [ 3 ]

As a result of the 2008–2009 financial crisis, MotoGP is undergoing changes in an effort to cut costs. Among them are reducing Friday practice sessions; banning active suspension, launch control and ceramic composite brakes; extending the lifespan of engines; and reducing testing sessions. [ 4 ]

Chronology [ edit ]

1949: Start of the world championship in Grand Prix motorcycle racing.

1957: Gilera, Mondial and Moto Guzzi withdraw at the end of the season.

1958: MV Agusta win the constructor’s and rider’s championships in all 4 solo classes.

1959: MV Agusta retain all eight solo titles. Honda enters the Isle of Man TT for the first time.

1960: MV Agusta retain all 8 championships again.

1962: First year of 50cc class.

1966: Honda wins the constructor’s championship in all 5 solo classes.

1967: Final year of unrestricted numbers of cylinders and gears.

1968: Giacomo Agostini (MV Agusta) wins both 350cc and 500cc titles.

1969: As 1968.

1970: As 1968.

1971: As 1968.

1972: As 1968. Death of Gilberto Parlotti at the Isle of Man TT, multiple world champion Giacomo Agostini and other riders boycott the next 4 events on grounds of safety.

1973: Deaths of Jarno Saarinen and Renzo Pasolini at the Italian round at Monza.

1974: The Suzuki RG500 is the first square-4 in the 500cc class.

1975: Giacomo Agostini (Yamaha) wins the 500cc class. Yamaha was the first non European brand to win the rider’s championship.

1976: Barry Sheene wins the first 500cc champioship for Suzuki.The FIM gives in to the rider’s boycotting of the Isle of Man TT, and the round is taken off the calendar.

1977: Barry Sheene wins the 500cc class. The British Grand Prix moves from the Isle of Man TT to the British mainland.

1978: Kenny Roberts(Yamaha) wins the 500cc class.

1979: As 1978

1980: As 1978. Patrick Pons (Yamaha 500cc) and Malcolm White (passenger Phil Love) (sidecar) are both killed in the British GP at Silverstone.

1981: Marco Lucchinelli (Suzuki) wins the 500cc class

1982: Franco Uncini (Suzuki) wins the 500cc class. The Yamaha OW61 YZR500 is the first V4 in the 500cc class.

1982: Jock Taylor (passenger Benga Johansson)(Windle-Yamaha) is killed at the Finnish sidecar GP. Imatra is subsequently removed from the GP calendar.

1984: Michelin introduces radial tyres in GPs.

1987: Push starts are eliminated.

1988: Wayne Rainey wins the first 500cc race using carbon brakes, at the British GP.

1988: Alfred Heck (passenger Andreas Räcke) is killed during free practice in the French sidecar GP.

1989: Iván Palazzese (Aprilia) is killed in 250cc German GP at Hockenheim.

1990: 500cc grid switches from 5 to 4 bikes per row.

1992: Honda introduces NSR500 with big bang engine.

1993: Shinichi Itoh and fuel-injected NSR500 break the 200mph (320km/h) barrier at the German GP at Hockenheim.

1993: Nobuyuki Wakai (Suzuki) is killed during the practice session of the 250cc GP in Spain.

1994: Simon Prior, passenger of Yoshisada Kumagaya, on an LCR-ADM, is killed in a crash involving seven outfits in the Sidecar GP at Hockenheim.

1998: 500cc switch to unleaded fuel.

2002: MotoGP replaces the 500cc class; 990cc four-strokes can now race alongside 500cc two-strokes.

2003: Daijiro Kato is killed during the Japanese GP MotoGP class at Suzuka when he hits the barrier at 340R. Because of safety issues at 130R (Formula One car driver Allan McNish had a serious crash during the Formula One car race the previous October there, resulting in a reprofiled 130R for 2003, known as 85R and 340R.).

2004: MotoGP grid switches from 4 to 3 bikes per row.

2004: Makoto Tamada earns Bridgestone their first MotoGP victory at the Brazilian GP.

2005: MotoGP adopts flag-to-flag rule, allowing riders to pit and switch to bikes fitted with wet- weather tyres and continue if rain begins to fall mid-race.

2007: MotoGP engine capacity is restricted to 800cc four-strokes.

2008: Dunlop drops out of MotoGP.

2009: Michelin drops out of MotoGP and Bridgestone becomes the sole tire provider. [ 5 ] [ 6 ]

2009: Kawasaki suspends MotoGP activities for 2009 and considers privateer team.

2010: Moto2 replaces the 250cc GP two-stroke class. All engines are built for Moto2 by Honda and are four-stroke 600cc in-line 4-cylinder producing

125bhp and rev up to 16000 rpm.

2010: Moto2 rider Shoya Tomizawa is killed in Misano.

2011: MotoGP rider Marco Simoncelli dies in Sepang. [ 7 ]

2011: Suzuki withdraws from MotoGP at the end of the season.

2012: Moto3 250cc four-stroke single-cylinder class replaces the 125cc two-stroke class.

2012: MotoGP raises the maximum engine capacity to 1,000cc [ 8 ] and introduces Claiming Rule Teams.

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2013: Introduced, Knockout qualifying style. [ 9 ]

Riders [ edit ]

See also: List of Grand Prix motorcycle racers

Top riders travel the world to compete in the annual FIM World Championship series. The championship is perhaps most closely followed in Italy and Spain, home of many of the more successful riders early in the 21st century. As for the 2011 season, 25 riders of eight nations participated in the premier class of the championship.

Champions [ edit ]

See also: List of Grand Prix motorcycle racing World champions

The Riders’ World Championship is awarded to the most successful rider over a season, as determined by a points system based on Grand Prix results.

Giacomo Agostini is the most successful champion in Grand Prix history, with 15 titles to his name (8 in the 500cc class and 7 in the 350cc class). The most dominant rider of all time was Mike Hailwood, winning 10 out of 12 (83%) races, in the 250cc class, in the 1966 season. Mick Doohan, who won 12 out of 15 (80%) of the 500cc races in the 1997 Grand Prix motorcycle racing season also deserves an honourable mention.

Valentino Rossi is the most successful contemporary rider, having won 9 titles including 7 Moto GP titles, and 1 each at 500cc, 250cc and 125cc levels. [ 10 ] The current (2013) champion is Marc Márquez.

MotoGP circuits [ edit ]

The MotoGP 2014 will consist of races at circuits in 17 different countries. [ 11 ]

Qatar, Doha, Losail International Circuit

United States, Austin, Circuit of the Americas

Argentina, Autódromo Termas de Río Hondo

Spain, Jerez de la Frontera, Circuito de Jerez

France, Le Mans

Italy, Mugello Circuit

Spain, Catalunya, Circuit de Catalunya

Netherlands, Assen, TT Circuit Assen

Germany, Sachsenring

United States, Indianapolis, Indianapolis Motor Speedway

Czech Republic, Brno, Masaryk Circuit

United Kingdom, Silverstone Circuit

San Marino, Misano World Circuit Marco Simoncelli

Spain, Aragon, Motorland Aragon

Malaysia, Sepang, Sepang Circuit

Australia, Phillip Island Grand Prix Circuit

Japan, Motegi, Twin Ring Motegi

Spain, Valencia, Circuit Ricardo Tormo

Specifications [ edit ]

The following shows the key specifications issues for each class. It was also introduced for the 2005 year, that under rule 2.10.5: ‘No fuel on the motorcycle may be more than 15K below ambient temperature. The use of any device on the motorcycle to artificially decrease the temperature of the fuel below ambient temperature is forbidden.

No motorcycle may include such a device.’ This stops an artificial boost gained from increasing fuel density by cooling it.

MotoGP class [ edit ]

Casey Stoner at MotoGP Brno

At the beginning of the new MotoGP era in 2002, 500cc two-stroke or 990cc four-stroke bikes were specified to race. The enormous power advantage of the larger displacement four-stroke engine over the two-stroke meant that by the following season, no two-stroke bikes were racing. In 2007, the maximum engine capacity was reduced to 800cc without reducing the existing weight restriction. MotoGP-class motorcycles are not restricted to any specific engine configuration.

However, the number of cylinders employed in the engine determines the motorcycle’s permitted minimum weight; the weight of the extra cylinders acts as a form of handicap. This is necessary because, for a given capacity, an engine with more cylinders is capable of producing more power. If comparable bore to stroke ratios are employed, an engine with more cylinders will have a greater piston area and a shorter stroke.

The increased piston area permits an increase in the total valve area, allowing more air and fuel to be drawn into the engine, and the shorter stroke permits higher revs at the same piston speed, allowing the engine to pump still more air and fuel with the potential to produce more power, but with more fuel consumption too. In 2004 motorcycles were entered with three-, four-and five-cylinder configurations. A six-cylinder engine was proposed by Blata, but it did not reach the MotoGP grids.

Presently four-cylinder engines appear to offer the best compromise between weight, power, and fuel consumption as all competitors in the 2009 series use this solution in either ‘V’ or in-line configuration.

In 2002, the FIM became concerned at the advances in design and engineering that resulted in higher speeds around the race track; regulation changes related to weight, amount of available fuel and engine capacity were introduced. The amended rules reduced engine capacity to 800cc from 990cc and restricted the amount of available fuel for race distance from 26 litres (5.7impgal; 6.9USgal) in year 2004 to 21 litres (4.6impgal; 5.5USgal) in year 2007 and onwards. In addition, the minimum weight of four-cylinder bikes used by all participating teams was increased by 3kg (6.6lb).

The highest speed for a MotoGP motorcycle in 125cc category is 249.76km/h (155.19mph) by Valentino Rossi in 1996 for Aprilia and the top speed in the history of MotoGP is 351km/h (218mph), set by Valentino Rossi riding a Ducati Desmosedici during Free Practice 3 at the 2012 Italian motorcycle Grand Prix. [ 12 ]

On December 11, 2009, the Grand Prix Commission announced that the MotoGP class would switch to the 1,000cc motor limit starting in the 2012 season. Maximum displacement will be limited to 1,000cc, maximum cylinders would be limited to four, and maximum bore would be capped at 81mm (3.2 inches). [ 13 ] Carmelo Ezpeleta, the CEO of Dorna Sports indicated that the projected changes were received by the teams favorably. [ 14 ]

From 2012, teams not entered by one of the major manufacturers may seek Claiming Rule Team (CRT) status. CRT is intended to allow independent teams to be competitive at a lower cost and increase the number of entries in MotoGP. CRT teams will benefit from less restrictive rules on the number of engines that may be used in a season, and the fuel allowance during a race will be larger. Under the ‘Claiming Rule’, CRT teams agree to allow up to four of their engines per season to be claimed, after a race, by one of the major manufacturer teams at a cost of €20,000 each including transmission, or €15,000 each for the engine alone. [ 15 ]

Moto2 class [ edit ]

Moto2 is the 600cc four-stroke class, launched in 2010 to replace the traditional 250cc two-stroke class. Engines are produced by Honda; [ 16 ] tyres by Dunlop and electronics will be limited and supplied only by FIM sanctioned producers with max cost set at 650 EUR. Carbon-fibre brakes will be banned and only steel brakes will be allowed.

However, there will be no chassis limitations. From 2010 onwards, only 600cc four-stroke Moto2 machines are allowed. [ 17 ]

Moto3 class [ edit ]

The 125cc class was replaced in 2012 by the Moto3 class. This class is restricted to single-cylinder 250cc four-stroke engines with a maximum bore of 81mm (3.2 inches). The minimum total weight for motorcycle and rider is 148kg (326lb).

Riders in the Moto3 class cannot be older than 28 years, or 25 years for new contracted riders participating for the first time and wild-cards.

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