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Kawasaki Square Four 2 Stroke Prototype

16 May 2012

Have you ever how they came up with class sizes? Motorcycle sizes come in any size and the manufacturer thinks is either inexpensive and will translate to figures in the showroom.

For racing it was necessary for the many different and configurations to be placed on an even for competition. From that grew these classes, by engine displacement measured in centimeters, 50, 125, 250, 500, 600, 750, and ccs.

Eventually a few more added, although not specifically they are displacements that are giving consideration to their configuration, such as the 675 three which is allowed to compete in the 600 and the 1198 displacement for twin configurations in the 1000cc class.

Racing World Championship Prix is the premier championship of road racing. Currently it is into three classes: Moto2 and Moto3. All three use four-… engines. In 2010 the two-strokes were replaced by the new 600cc four-… class.

In the 125cc two-strokes were by the Moto3 250cc four-…, and the capacity for MotoGP increased 800cc to 1000cc.

Motorcycle Prix history milestones

Start of the world championship in Prix motorcycle racing.

Gilera, Mondial and Moto withdraw at the end of the season.

1958: MV wins the constructor’s and rider’s in all 4 solo classes.

1959: MV retains all eight solo Honda enter the Isle of Man TT for the time.

1960: MV Agusta all 8 championships again.

1962: year of 50cc class.

Honda wins the constructor’s in all 5 solo classes.

1967: year of unrestricted numbers of and gears.

1968: Giacomo (MV Agusta) wins both and 500cc titles.

1969: As

1970: As 1968.

1971: As

1972: As 1968.

1972: of Gilberto Parlotti at the Isle of Man TT, ultimately to the loss of its championship

1973: Deaths of Jarno and Renzo Pasolini at the Italian at Monza.

1974: The Suzuki is the first square-4 in the 500cc

1977: The British Grand moves from the Isle of Man TT to the mainland.

1980: Patrick (Yamaha 500cc) and Malcolm (passenger Phil Love) are both … in the British GP at 1982: The Yamaha OW61 is the first V4 in the 500cc class.

1982: Jock Taylor Benga Johansson) (Windle-Yamaha) is at the Finnish sidecar GP. Imatra is removed from the GP calendar. Michelin introduces radial in GPs.

1987: Push are eliminated. 1988: Wayne wins the first 500cc using carbon brakes, at the GP.

1988: Alfred Heck Andreas Räcke) is … in free practice in the French GP.

1989: Iván Palazzese is … in 250cc German GP at 1990: 500cc grid from 5 to 4 bikes per row. Honda introduces NSR500 big bang engine.

1993: Itoh and fuel-injected NSR500 the 200 mph (320 km/h) barrier at the GP at Hockenheim.

1993: Nobuyuki (Suzuki) is … during the session of the 250cc GP in Spain.

Simon Prior, passenger of Kumagaya, on an LCR-ADM, is … in a involving seven outfits in the GP at Hockenheim.

1998: 500cc to unleaded fuel.

2002: replaces 500cc class, 990cc 4-strokes to race 500cc 2-strokes.

2003: Kato is … in the first of the season; Suzuka is folded of safety issues at 130R had been a serious Formula One at the 2002 Japanese Grand in the same section).

2004: grid switches from 4 to 3 per row.

2004: Makoto earns Bridgestone their MotoGP victory at the Brazilian GP.

MotoGP adopts flag-to-flag allowing riders to pit and switch to fitted with wet- tyres and continue if rain to fall mid-race.

2007: engine capacity is restricted to 4-strokes.

2008: Dunlop out of MotoGP. 2009: Michelin out of MotoGP and Bridgestone becomes the tyre provider.

2009: suspends MotoGP activities for and considers privateer team.

Moto2 rider Shoya is … in Misano.

2010: engine capacity is restricted to 4-strokes.

2011: MotoGP Marco Simoncelli is … in

2011: Suzuki withdraws MotoGP at the end of the season.

2012: 250cc 4-… single-cylinder replaces the 125cc 2-…

2012: MotoGP raises the engine capacity to 1000cc and Claiming Rule Teams.

racing back in the 1950s and ran in five classes: 500cc, 250cc, 125cc and Sidecars Sometime during the 80’s, the class was dropped and the 50cc grew into the 80cc All of these sizes are a reflection of was popular on the road.

Today the 600cc class is actually powered by an engine no more than 599cc and the 1000cc class motorcycle is in no more than 998cc. that displacement would bar from competing in their classes, 600 and 1000 cc; Supersport and respectively.

Motorcycle manufacturers always rounded out the engine’s 50cc engines are actually 49 cc, are actually 249cc in fact of them are actually the nice numbers we refer to them by.

we started adding cylinders to the mix really got confusing. Originally of the motorcycles were single then they started cylinders. The twins or two cylinder configurations were followed by, 4s and even inline sixes.

The of multiple cylinders is increased in the faster the engine can spin the it can make horsepower and torque. The and triple cylinder arrangements not as efficient as the overhead cam inline 4s. the shift from two … to 4 strokes the racing sanctioning wanted to attract more to compete.

The Fédération Internationale de F.I.M. is the world roadracing body, as well as those sanctioning bodies, had to make the fair and allowed twin and engine configurations to have a engine displacement too. by allowing the twins and triples to be in size, the 1198 cc twins compete with inline 4s of size and the 675cc triple could race with the 4s of 599cc.

Now comes the real racing class size is cc; or 96 and 103 cubic inches? None, you look at drag racing has classes for just about But road racing doesn’t classes in these sizes.

are special race series for the Hayabusa, so perhaps some there at a local track Harley Electra Glides laps.

Harley engines some interesting sizes but the 70s none of them were on racing. That’s not to say that classes and series didn’t for them. The 883’s have competing for years against We haven’t seen Harley actively road race 1999.

Once the development of the V-Rod engine was completed the race bike, despite success, was retired before the season was finished.

Harley-Davidson’s capacity engines, the 1200cc 1340cc (80ci), and then the 96ci and the 103ci; seem to be with no one else except own aftermarket, which offers of identical sizes and larger, can be used in Harley frames or in made cruisers.

Sometime in the 90sHarley started to real competition from Metric cruisers were to grow and capture the torque and feel of the heavy American The competition from Japan the engine sizes to gain as well as increased horsepower and figures.

The heat was being up- and cruiser engine size began- A whole new class, the cruiser evolved during time but the engine sizes were getting a little just what classes fell into was anybody’s

Of course every now and then a new would jump in and bump up the size to lay claim to having the egine. Now with engines two liters (2000cc) are powering motorcycles. Of course there are the like Boss Hoss used 350ci V8s to power motorcycles and have since began building there

I’m not sure just how we are to size the newest two wheelers; the motorcycle-

Cylinders and configuration

The of motorcycle engines are configured as parallel twins, triples, and sixes; and all these may be inline or V engines include V-twins and and horizontally opposed engines flat-twins, flat-fours and flat-sixes. engines are either single-rotor or

Bigger bikes tend to more cylinders for smoothness and power. Modern singles in capacity from 50 cc to 660 cc, twins 175 cc to 1800 cc, triples from 380 cc to cc, and so on.


Single-cylinder engines singles or thumpers) have the vertical, inclined or horizontal, the type most common in motorcycles. Single-cylinder engines both a larger flywheel and a gearbox than multi-cylinder Small singles are cheap to and maintain and are suitable as cheap motorcycles.



the mid-1960s, road-racing machines as Matchless, AJS and Norton) tended to be singles, but since then racers have become the Off-road bikes still use engines; but the new category of dual-sport tend to use twins or triples.

with Edward Turner’s Triumph Speed Twin and until the mid 1970s, the parallel was the most common British type. Parallel twins are mounted transversely, with the side by side above the and with exhaust pipes at the in the cool airstream. Longitudinal (aka inline twins) the 500 cc Sunbeam S7 and S8.

There are three crankshaft for this engine: 360, and the newer 270. Parallel usually have only two bearings.


Kawasaki Square Four 2 Stroke Prototype

In a V-twin the cylinders form a V around the A V-angle of 90, as used by Ducati and Guzzi, can give perfect and secondary balance, with a irregular firing order. A angle gives a more motor, but one which is prone to such as 42 (Indian), 45 (Harley-Davidson), 52 and 60 (Aprilia).

Most V-twins a single crankpin shared by connecting rods (so that the are slightly offset), but a variation is to a single crankpin with blade con-rods, to keep the in line. Non-90 V-twins may offset crankpins to try to reduce

V-twins may be mounted either with the cylinders protruding side (e.g. Honda and Moto Guzzi ), or transversely, Harley Davidson, Ducati, Vincent, Moto Morini and

Transverse V-twins can raise in cooling the aft cylinder, and in sitting the air battery, aft carburetor, and aft exhaust

Flat twin

In a flat-twin engine, the cylinders are horizontally The boxer has perfect primary balance only a small couple, and (unlike a V-twin), firing intervals, producing low vibration levels (without the use of shafts). Such engines are mounted longitudinally with the protrude into the airstream, so a flat twin can satisfactorily be

Flats twins are made by Ural, Harley-Davidson’s WW2 XA model, and historically by Douglas. The longitudinal makes the flat twin suitable for shaft final but (arguably, perversely) the Douglas had chain-drive.

Some early used transversely mounted twin engines.


The Tandem Twin where the are longitudinal, and have two cranks together such as Kawasaki’s road bike and KR250 and GP Bikes. A tandem twin is a pair of geared singles, and is to be from an inline twin as the Sunbeam S7. Tandem twins are primarily for two-… racers.

Inline 3

Three-cylinder (aka are normally mounted transversely. The Hinckley Triumph factory has in transverse triples, although 2,300 cc longitudinal Rocket III has an engine. Other examples are the Tre and the Yamaha XS750.

The Italian Laverda made a few 1,000 cc and cc triples. Curiously, some Triples had 120 cranks, while had 180 cranks (essentially three-quarters of a BMW made the K75 longitudinal 750 cc triple the cylinders parallel to the ground.

Meriden Triumph developed the 750 cc from which BSA badge-engineered the

Some triples were The Kawasaki triples were with capacities of 250, 400, 500, and 750 cc in the 1970s, Suzuki produced 380, and 750 triples (the last water-cooled). Motobecane made 350 cc and 500 cc triples with 3 into 4 in the early seventies.

Honda the water-cooled V-3 two-strokes MVX250 and There have been race bike triples as Kawasaki KR750, Suzuki transverse 3’s, and Proton/Modenas Honda NS500 V-3s.

Four-cylinder engines are most found in a transverse-mounted inline layout, although some are (as in the earlier BMW K100). V-4 and boxer (as in the earlier Honda Gold have been produced. One of the unusual designs was the Ariel Four, effectively two parallel-twin one in front of the other in a common — it had remarkably little due to the contra-rotating crankshafts.

Since the of the Honda CB750 straight-four straight-fours have dominated the street motorcycle segments. The manufacturer Münch based motorcycles on four-cylinder car engines Mammut 2000 has a 2.0l a turbo and cylinder heads by

Flat 4

A flat-4 or horizontally is a flat engine with cylinders arranged horizontally in two of two cylinders on each side of a crankcase. The pistons are usually on the crankshaft such that pistons move back and in opposite directions at the same somewhat like a boxing punching their gloves before a fight, which has led to it referred to as a boxer engine. The results in inherently good of the reciprocating parts, a low centre of and a very short engine

Honda uses V4 engines in the ST and VFR series. As for two-… engines, were four cylinders in the classes such as Kawasaki’s 125 cc KR3 4 and Yamaha’s 250 cc RD500 V4 (RZ 500 in the US). later raced transverse TZ500/700/750’s and virtually all the bikes in the decade of the two-… GP500 era fours (first squares Vees) i.e.

Honda, Cagiva, Suzuki, Yamaha Kawasaki also experimented a trapezoidal four the 602S. made the V4 RD500LC, and Suzuki the and RG500 square four bikes.


A square is a U engine with two cylinders on side. This configuration was on the Ariel Square Four from 1931 to 1959. design was revived as a two-… on some racing Suzuki and their subsequent road-going the RG500.

Although some racing was achieved, the road bikes sell in great numbers, and the was phased out in favour of in-line, designs, as at the time two-… were quickly being by more economical, reliable, and four-strokes.


Honda has five-cylinder engines for racing, the 990 cc V5. No V5 engines are currently available in production motorcycles.

Just to their collapse, BSA planned a family of bike engines around a 200 cc single. The range was to the single, a 400 cc twin, a 600 cc triple and a cc V5. None of these motorcycles production.

Inline 6

The 1,047 cc CBX was produced from 1978 to The 1,300 cc Kawasaki KZ1300 was from 1979 to 1989. made the 750 cc and 900 cc the Sei from 1972 to Honda made a 250 cc straight-six GP

The BMW K1600GT and K1600GTL, which launched in 2011, have a 1,649 cc engine.

Flat 6

The engine is currently used by in the Rune, Valkrye and Gold

Galbusera built a V8 in 1938, and Guzzi experimented over a of two years with its dual-overhead-cam 500 cc V8 Otto Cylindri) in the 1950s. custom and one-off motorcycles use than six cylinders. For example, the Hoss motorcycle uses cc, 6,000 cc and 8,200 cc) Chevy V-8 motors.

In the 1990s Daimler-Chrysler a limited number of Tomahawk bikes featuring a Dodge V-10 engine. Australian Drysdale have built runs of 750 cc V8 superbikes and 1L V8 road motorcycles, both with specifically developed for the purpose. No motorcycle manufacturer has used or more cylinders, although made the ‘almost’ V8 oval-piston road bike and NR500 GP (having eight connecting for example) and Morbidelli has shown two V8 road bikes, but has yet to get off the ground

Kawasaki Square Four 2 Stroke Prototype
Kawasaki Square Four 2 Stroke Prototype
Kawasaki Square Four 2 Stroke Prototype


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